Circumcision References

Page 2 of 3

J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R


Jacobson SH, Eklof O, Eriksson CG, Lins LE, Tidgren B, Winberg J. Development of hypertension and uraemia after pyelonephritis in childhood: 27 year follow up. Brit Med J 1989; 16: 703-706.

Jacobson SH, Eklof O, Lins LE, Wikstad I, Winberg J. Long-term prognosis of post-infectious renal scarring in relation to radiological findings in childhood--a 27-year follow-up. Pediatr Nephrol 1992; 6: 19-24.

Jadack RA, Yuenger J, Ghanem KG, Zenilman J. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Y-chromosome sequences in vaginal fluid of women accessing a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Sex Transm Dis 2006; 33: 22-25.

Jakobsson B, Berg U, Svensson L. Renal scarring after acute pyelonephritis. Arch Dis Child 1994; 71: 386-387.

Jakobsson B, Esbjörner E, Hansson S. Minimum incidence and diagnostic rate of first urinary tract infection. Pediatrics 1999; 104 (Part 1): 222-226.

Jameson DR, Celum CL, Manhart L, Menza TW, Golden MR. The association between lack of circumcision and HIV, HSV-2, and other sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis 2010: [Epub ahead of print Nov 6, 2009].

Jerath VP, Mahajan VK. Does circumcision influence recurrences in herpes genitalis? Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2009; 75: 575-578.

Jessamine PG, Plummer FA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Wainberg MA, Wamolo I, D'Costa JL, Cameron DW, Simonsen JN, Plouroe P, Ronald AR. Human immunodeficiency virus, genital ulcers and the male forskin: synergism in HIV-1 transmission. Scand J Infect Dis 1990 (suppl 69): 181-186.

Jewkes R, Dunkle K, Nduna M, Levin J, Jama N, Khuzwayo N, Koss M, Puren A, Duvvury N. Factors associated with HIV sero-positivity in young, rural South African men. Int J Epidemiol 2006; 35: 1455-1460.

Jha P, Nagelkerke NJD, Ngugi EN, prasada-Rao JVR, Willbond B, Moses S, Plummer FA. Reducing HIV transmission in developing countries. Science 2001; 292: 224-225.

Jit M, Vyse A, Borrow R, Pebody R, Soldan K, Miller E. Prevalence of human papillomavirus antibodies in young female subjects in England. Br J Cancer 2007; 97: 989-991.

Johnson K, Way A. Risk factors for HIV infection in a national adult population: evidence from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 42: 627-636.

Johnson KE, Sherman ME, Ssempiija V, Tobian AA, Zenilman JM, Duggan MA, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Wawer MJ, Quinn TC, Rabkin CS, Gray RH. Foreskin inflammation is associated with HIV and herpes simplex virus type-2 infections in Rakai, Uganda. AIDS 2009; 23: 1807-1815.

Johnson TR, Pituch K, Brackbill EL, Wan J, van de Ven C, Pearlman MD. Why and how a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology stopped doing routine newborn male circumcision. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 109: 750-752.

Joint. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. The HIV/AIDS Situation in Mid 1996: Global and Regional Highlights. United Nations, Geneva.  1996 (UNAIDS fact sheet).

Jones JS. Finally, level 1 evidence of significantly decreased mortality with urological surgery. BJU Int 2007; 101: 270.


Kagumire R. Ugandan effort to constrain HIV spread hampered by systemic and cultural obstacles to male circumcision. Can Med Assoc J 2008; 179: 1119-1120.

Kahn JG, Marseille E, Auvert B. Cost-effectiveness of male circumcision for HIV prevention in a South African setting. PLoS Med 2006; 3 (e517): 2349-2358.

Kaizu M, Weiler AM, Weisgrau KL, Vielhuber KA, May G, Piaskowski SM, Furlott J, Maness NJ, Friedrich TC, Loffredo JT, Usborne A, Rakasz EG. Repeated intravaginal inoculation with cell-associated simian immunodeficiency virus results in persistent infection of nonhuman primates. J Infect Dis 2006; 194: 912-916.

Kalcev B. Circumcision and personal hygiene in school boys. Med Officer 1964; 112: 171-173.

Kallenius G, Moillby R, Svenson SB, Helin I, Hultberg H, Cedergren B, Winberg J. Occurrence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli in urinary tract infections. Lancet 1981a; ii: 1369-1372.

Kallenius G, Svenson S, Mollby R, Cedergren B, Hultberg H, Winberg J. Structure of carbohydrate part of receptor on human uroepithelial cells for pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli. Lancet 1981b; ii: 604-606.

Kan CY, Iacopetta BJ, Lawson JS, Whitaker NJ. Identification of human papillomavirus DNA gene sequences in human breast cancer. Br J Cancer 2005; 93: 946-948.

Kang M, Rochford A, Johnston V, Jackson J, Freedman E, Brown K, Mindel A. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among 'high risk' young people in New South Wales. Sex Health 2006; 3: 253-254.

Kanik AB, Lee J, Wax F, Bhawan J. Penile verrucous carcinoma in a 37-year-old circumcised man. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997; 37: 329-331.

Kapiga SH, Lyamuya EF, Lwihula GK, Hunter DJ. The incidence of HIV infection among women using family planning methods in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. AIDS 1998; 12: 75-84.

Kapiga SH, Sam NE, Shao JF, Masenga EJ, Renjifo B, Kiwelu IE, Manongi R, Fawzi WW, Essex M. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among bar and hotel workers in northern Tanzania: prevalence and risk factors. Sex Transm Dis 2003; 30: 187-192.

Kaplan GW. Complications of circumcision. Urol Clin North Am 1983; 10: 543-549.

Karaman MI, Zulfikar B, Caskurlu T, Ergenekon E. Circumcision in hemophilia: a cost-effective method using a novel device. J Pediatr Surg 2004; 39: 1562-1564.

Kargı E, Işıkdemir A, Tokgöz H, Erol B, Işıkdemir F, Hancı V, Payaslı C. Comparison of Local Anesthetic Effects of Tramadol With Prilocaine During Circumcision Procedure. Urology 2009: [Epub ahead of print Oct 23].

Karim QA. Prevention of HIV by male circumcision. Effective but integration with existing sexual health services remains the biggest challenge. Brit Med J 2007; 335: 4-5.

Kassler WJ, Aral SO. Beyond risk groups: behavioral correlates of HIV seroconversion in sexually transmitted disease clinic patients. XI Int Mtg Int Soc STD Res 1995: abstract #017.

Katelaris PM, Cossart YE, Rose BR, Thompson CH, Sorich E, Nightingale B, Dallas PB, Morris BJ. Human papillomavirus: the untreated male reservoir. J Urol 1988; 140: 300-305.

Katz IT, Wright AA. Circumcision--a surgical strategy for HIV prevention in Africa. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 2412-2415.

Kaufman GE, Cimo S, Miller LW, Blass EM. An evaluation of the effects of sucrose on neonatal pain with 2 commonly used circumcision methods. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 186: 564-568.

Kayaba H, Tamura H, Kitajima S, Fujiwara Y, Kato T, Kato T. Analysis of shape and retractability of the prepuce in 603 Japanese boys. J Urol 1996; 156: 1813-1815.

Kazem MM, Mehdi AZ, Golrasteh KZ, Behzad FZ. Comparative evaluation of two techniques of hemostasis in neonatal circumcision using plastibell device. J Pediatr Urol 2009: [Epub ahead of print Sep 4].

Kebaabetswe P, Lockman S, Mogwe S, Mandevu R, Thior I, Essex M, Shapiro RL. Male circumcision: an acceptable strategy for HIV prevention in Botswana. Sex Transm Infect 2003; 79: 214-219.

Kelly R, Kiwanuka N, Wawer MJ, Serwadda D, Sewankambo NK, Wabwire-Mangen F, Li C, Konde-Lule JK, Lutalo T, Makumbi F, Gray RH. Age of male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in rural Uganda. AIDS 1999; 13: 399-405.

Kendirci M, Kadioglu A, Boylu U, Miroglu C. Urogenital surgery of the 15th century in Anatolia. J Urol 2005; 173: 1879-82.

Khan FH. HIV and homosexuality in Pakistan. Lancet Infect Dis 2009; 9: 204-205.

Kiggundu V, Watya S, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Nalugoda F, Buwembo D, Settuba A, Anyokorit M, Nkale J, Kighoma N, Ssempijja V, Wawer M, Gray RH. The number of procedures required to achieve optimal competency with male circumcision: findings from a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda. BJU Int 2009; 104: 529-532.

Kigozi G, Watya S, Polis CB, Buwembo D, Kiggundu V, Wawer MJ, Serwadda D, Nalugoda F, Kiwanuka N, Bacon MC, Ssempijja V, Makumbi F, Gray RH. The effect of male circumcision on sexual satisfaction and function, results from a randomized trial of male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus prevention, Rakai, Uganda. BJU Int 2008; 101: 65-70.

Kigozi G, Lukabwe I, Kagaayi J, Wawer MJ, Nantume B, Kigozi G, Nalugoda F, Kiwanuka N, Wabwire-Mangen F, Serwadda D, Ridzon R, Buwembo D, Nabukenya D, Watya S, Lutalo T, Nkale J, Gray RH. Sexual satisfaction of women partners of circumcised men in a randomized trial of male circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. BJU Int 2009a; 104: 1698-1701.

Kigozi G, Wawer M, Ssettuba A, Kagaayi J, Nalugoda F, Watya S, Mangen FW, Kiwanuka N, Bacon MC, Lutalo T, Serwadda D, Gray RH. Foreskin surface area and HIV acquisition in Rakai, Uganda (size matters). AIDS 2009b; 23: 2209-2213.

Kim D, Pang MG. The effect of male circumcision on sexuality. BJU Int 2007; 99: 1169-1170.

Kim DS, Lee JY, Pang MG. Male circumcision: a South Korean perspective. BJU Int 1999; 83 (Suppl 1): 28-33.

Kim HH, Goldstein M. High complication rates challenge the implementation of male circumcision for HIV prevention in Africa. Nat Clin Pract Urol 2009; 6: 64-65.

Kirby PK, Munyao  T, Kreiss J, Holmes KK. The challenge of limiting the spread of human immune deficiency virus by controlling other sexually transmitted diseases [Review]. Arch Dermatol 1991; 127: 237-242.

Kirkpatrick BV, Eitzman DV. Neonatal septicemia after circumcision. Clin Pediatr 1974; 13: 767-768.

Kirya C, Werthmann M. Neonatal circumcision and penile dorsal nerve block: a painless procedure. J Pediatr 1978; 92: 998-1000.

Kiss A, Kiraly L, Kutasy B, Merksz M. High incidence of balanitis xerotica obliterans in boys with phimosis: prospective 10-year study. Pediatr Dermatol 2005; 22: 305-308.

Klausner J, Wamai RG, Bowa K, Agot K, Kagimba J, Halperin DT. Is male circumcision as good as the HIV vaccine we've been waiting for? Future HIV Ther 2008; 2: 1-7.

Klavs I, Hamers FF. Male circumcision in Slovenia: results from a national probability sample survey. Sex Transm Infect 2007; 84: 49-50.

Ko MC, Liu CK, Lee WK, Jeng HS, Chiang HS, Li CY. Age-specific prevalence rates of phimosis and circumcision in Taiwanese boys. J Formos Med Assoc 2007; 106: 302-307.

Kochen M, McCurdy S. Circumcision and risk of cancer of the penis. A life-table analysis. Am J Dis Child 1980; 134: 484-486.

Kohn F-M, Pflieger-Bruss S, Schill W-B. Penile skin diseases. Andrologia 1999; 31 (suppl 1): 3-11.

Kotecha MT, Afghan RK, Vasilikopoulou E, Wilson E, Marsh P, Kast WM, Davies DH, Caparros-Wanderley W. Enhanced tumour growth after DNA vaccination against human papilloma virus E7 oncoprotein: evidence for tumour-induced immune deviation. Vaccine 2003; 21: 2506-2515.

Koyle MA, Barqawi A, Wild J, Passamaneck M, Furness PD. Pediatric urinary tract infections: the role of fluoroquinolones. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003; 22: 1133-1137.

Kozak LJ, Hall MJ, Owings MF. National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2000 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data. Vital Health Stat 13 2002; 153: 1-194.

Kreiss JK, Hopkins SG. The association between circumcision status and human immunodeficiency virus infection among homosexual men. J Infect Dis 1993; 168: 1404-1408.

Krieger JN, Bailey RC, Opeya J, Ayieko B, Opiyo F, Agot K, Parker C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Magoha GA, Moses S. Adult male circumcision: results of a standardized procedure in Kisumu District, Kenya. BJU Int 2005; 96: 1109-1113.

Krieger JN, Bailey RC, Opeya JC, Ayieko BO, Opiyo FA, Omondi D, Agot K, Parker C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Moses S. Adult male circumcision outcomes: experience in a developing country setting. Urol Int 2007; 78: 235-240.

Krieger JN, Mehta SD, Bailey RC, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Parker C, Moses S. Adult male circumcision: Effects on sexual function and sexual satisfaction in Kisumu, Kenya. J Sex Med 2008; 5: 2610-2622.

Ku WH, Chiu BS, Huen KF. Outcome and recurrence in treatment of phimosis using topical betamethasone in children in Hong Kong. J Paediatr Child Health 2007; 43: 74-79.

Kumar B, Narang T, Dass Radotra B, Gupta S. Plasma cell balanitis: clinicopathologic study of 112 cases and treatment modalities. J Cutan Med Surg 2006; 10: 11-15.

Kumar P, Deb M, Das K. Preputial adhesions--a misunderstood entity. Indian J Pediatr 2009; 76: 829-832.

Kunanusont C, Foy HM, Kreiss JK, Rerky-Ngaram S, Phanuphak P, Raktham S, Pau CP, Young NL. HIV-1 subtypes and male-to-female transmission in Thailand. Lancet 1995; 345: 1078-1083.

Kunin SA. Circumcision - The debate goes on. Pediatrics 2000; 105: 683.

Kurtis PS, DeSilva HN, Bernstein BA, Malakh L, Schrechter NL. A comparison of the Mogen and Gomco clamps in combination with dorsal penile nerve block in minimizing the pain of neonatal circumcision. Pediatrics 1999; 103: E23.


Lafferty PM, MacGregor FB, Scobie WG. Management of foreskin problems. Arch Dis Childhood 1991; 66: 696-697.

Lagarde E, Dirk T, Puren A, Reathe RT, Bertran A. Acceptability of male circumcision as a tool for preventing HIV infection in a highly infected community in South Africa. AIDS 2003; 17: 89-95.

Lagarde E, Taljaard D, Puren A, Auvert B. High rate of adverse events following circumcision of young male adults with the Tara KLamp technique: a randomised trial in South Africa. S Afr Med J 2009; 99: 163-169.

Lajous M, Mueller N, Cruz-Valdez A, Aguilar LV, Franceschi S, Hernandez-Avila M, Lazcano-Ponce E. Determinants of prevalence, acquisition, and persistence of human papillomavirus in healthy Mexican military men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 1710-1716.

Lajous M, Mueller N. In response. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15: 405-406.

Lander J, Brady-Fryer B, Metcalfe JB, Nazarali S, S. M. Comparison of ring block, dorsal penile nerve block, and topical anesthesia for neonatal circumcision. A randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 1997; 278: 2157-2162.

Lander J, Metcalfe JB, Muttitt S, Brady-Fryer B. Local anaesthesia for infants undergoing circumcision. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 279: 1171.

Landström JT, Schuyler RW, Macris GP. Microsurgical penile replantation facilitated by postoperative HBO treatment. Microsurgery 2004; 24: 49-55.

Lane T, Raymond HF, Dladla S, Rasethe J, Struthers H, McFarland W, McIntyre J. High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Soweto, South Africa: Results from the Soweto Men's Study. AIDS Behav 2009a; [Aug 7 Epub ahead of print].

Lane V, Vajda P, Subramaniam R. Paediatric sutureless circumcision: a systematic literature review. Pediatr Surg Int 2010: 26: 141-144.

Langer JC, Coplen DE. Circumcision and pediatric disorders of the penis. Pediatr Clin N Am 1998; 45: 801-812.

Lannon CM, Bailey AGD, Fleischman AR, Kaplan GW, Shoemaker CT, Swanson JT, Coustan D. Circumcision policy statement. Pediatrics 1999; 103: 686-693.

Laprairie JL, Murphy AZ. Neonatal injury alters adult pain sensitivity by increasing opioid tone in the periaqueductal gray. Front Behav Neurosci 2009; 3 (article 31): 1-11.

Latif AS, Katzenstein DA, Bassett MT, Houston S, Emmanuel JC, Marowa E. Genital ulcers and transmission of HIV among couples in Zimbabwe. AIDS 1989; 3: 519-523.

Laumann EO, Maal CM, Zuckerman EW. Circumcision in the United States. Prevalence, prophyactic effects, and sexual practice. J Am Med Assoc 1997; 277: 1052-1057.

Laumann EO, Paik A, Rosen RC. Sexual dysfunction in the United States: prevalence and predictors. JAMA. 1999; 281: 537-544.

Laurence J. Keratinization: a biologic alternative to male circumcision in the prevention of HIV infection? AIDS Read 2008; 18: 394-395.

Laurencin CT, Christensen DM, Taylor ED. HIV/AIDS and the African-American community: a state of emergency. J Natl Med Assoc. 2008; 100: 35-43.

Lavreys L, Rakwar JP, Thompson ML, Kackson DJ, Mandaliya K, Chohan BH, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, J.K. K. Effect of circumcision on incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases: a prospective cohort study of trucking company employees in Kenya. J Inf Dis 1999; 180: 330-336.

Law RM, Halpern S, Martins RF. Measurement of methemoglobin after EMLA analgesia for newborn circumcision. Biol Neonate 1996; 70: 213-217.

Lawler FH, Bisonni RS, Holtgrave DR. Circumcision: a cost decision analysis of its medical value. Fam Med 1991; 23: 587-593.

Lawson JS, Gunzburg WH, Whitaker NJ. Viruses and human breast cancer. Future Microbiol 2006a; 1: 33-51.

Lawson JS, Kan CY, Iacopetta BJ, Whitaker NJ. Are some breast cancers sexually transmitted? Br J Cancer 2006b; 95: 1708.

Lawson JS, Glenn WK, Heng B, Ye Y, Tran B, Lutze-Mann L, Whitaker NJ. Koilocytes indicate a role for human papilloma virus in breast cancer. Br J Cancer 2009; 101: 1351-1356.

Lazarus J, Alexander A, Rode H. Circumcision complications associated with the Plastibell device. S Afr Med J 2007; 97: 192-193.

Lehr VT, Cepeda E, Frattarelli DA, Thomas R, LaMothe J, Aranda JV. Lidocaine 4% cream compared with lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5% or dorsal penile block for circumcision. Am J Perinatol 2005; 22: 231-237.

Leibowitz AA, Desmond K, Belin T. Determinants and policy implications of male circumcision in the United States. Am J Public Health 2009; 99: 138-145.

Lerman SE, Liao JC. Neonatal circumcision. Pediatr Clin N Am 2001; 48: 1539-57.

Letendre J, Barrieras D, Franc-Guimond J, Abdo A, Houle AM. Topical triamcinolone for persistent phimosis. J Urol 2009; 182 (Suppl 4): 1759-1763.

Li PS, Lü NQ, Cheng Y, Peng YF, Tian L, Liu YD, Ben KL, Xu JC, Lee R, Kim H, Sokal DC. [The need for high-quality training and surgical standards for adult male circumcision in China] (Article in Chinese). Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2009; 15: 390-394.

Liatsikos EN, Perimenis P, Dandinis K, Kaladelfou E, Barbalias G. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Findings after complete circumcision. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1997; 31: 453-456.

Lie RK, Emanuel EJ, Grady C. Circumcision and HIV prevention research: an ethical analysis. Lancet 2006; 368: 522-525.

Littlewood JM. Sixty-six infants with urinary tract infection in first month of life. Arch Dis Child 1972; 47: 218-226.

Litwin MS, Saigal CS, Beerbohm EM. The burden of urologic diseases in America. J Urol 2005; 173: 1065-1066.

Lloyd VE. Circumcision and syphilis. Brit Med J 1934; -: 144-146.

Lohr JA. The foreskin and urinary tract infections. J Pediatr 1989; 114: 502-504.

Londish G, Murray J. Mathematical modelling of male circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa predicts significant reduction in adult HIV prevalence even when it is limited to certain age groups. 4th International AIDS Society Conference 2007: WEAC104.

Londish GJ, Murray JM. Significant reduction in HIV prevalence according to male circumcision intervention in sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Epidemiol 2008; 37: 1246-1253.

Lopman B, Nyamukapa C, Mushati P, Mupambireyi Z, Mason P, Garnett GP, Gregson S. HIV incidence in 3 years of follow-up of a Zimbabwe cohort--1998-2000 to 2001-03: contributions of proximate and underlying determinants to transmission. Int J Epidemiol 2008; 37: 88-105.

Low N, Broutet N, Adu-Sarkodie Y, Barton P, Hossain M, Hawkes S. Global control of sexually transmitted infections. Lancet 2006; 368: 2001-2016.

Lu B, Wu Y, Nielson CM, Flores R, Abrahamsen M, Papenfuss M, Harris RB, Giuliano AR. Factors associated with acquisition and clearance of human papillomavirus infection in a cohort of US men: a prospective study. J Infect Dis 2009; 199: 362-371.

Lu L, Jia M, Ma Y, Yang L, Chen Z, Ho DD, Jiang Y, Zhang L. The changing face of HIV in China. Nature 2008; 455: 609-611.

Lue TF. Physiology of penile erection and pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction and priapism. Campbell's Urology. Walsh PC, Retik AB, Vaughan FD. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders. 1998.

Lund L, Wai KH, Mui LM, Yeung CK. An 18-month follow-up study after randomized treatment of phimosis in boys with topical steroid versus placebo. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2005; 39: 78-81.

Ly L, Sankaran K. Acute venous stasis and swelling of the lower abdomen and extremities in an infant after circumcision. CMAJ 2003; 169: 216-217.


Macdonald A, Humphreys J, Jaffe HW. Prevention of HIV transmission in the United Kingdom: what is the role of male circumcision? Sex Transm Infect 2008; 84: 158-160.

Maden C, Sherman KJ, Beckmann AM, Huslop TK, Heh OZ, Ashley RL, Daling JR. History of circumcision, medical conditions, and sexual activity and risk of penile cancer. J Nat Canc Inst 1993; 85: 19-24.

Madhivanan P, Krupp K, Chandrasekaran V, Karat SC, Reingold AL, Klausner JD. Acceptability of male circumcision among mothers with male children in Mysore, India. AIDS 2008; 22: 983-988.

Madhivanan P, Krupp K. Doesn't the public have the right to know that male circumcision protects against HIV? Indian J Med Ethics 2009; 6: 5-6.

Madon T, Hofman KJ, Kupfer L, Glass RI. Public health. Implementation science. Science 2007; 318: 1728-1729.

Madsen BS, van den Brule AJ, Jensen HL, Wohlfahrt J, Frisch M. Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis--population-based case-control study in Denmark. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 2683-2691.

Mahiane SG, Legeai C, Taljaard D, Latouche A, Puren A, Peillon A, Bretagnolle J, Lissouba P, Nguema EP, Gassiat E, Auvert B. Transmission probabilities of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2, effect of male circumcision and interaction: a longitudinal study in a township of South Africa. AIDS 2009; 23: 377-383.

Makumbi FE, Gray RH, Wawer M, Nakigozi FG, Serwada D, Kigozi G, Watya S, Sempijja V, Wabwire-Mangen F. Male post-coital penile cleansing and the risk of HIV-acquisition in rural Rakai district, Uganda. 4th International AIDS Society Conference, Sydney 2007 (late-breaker abstract).

Malamba SS, Mermin JH, Bunnell R, Mubangizi J, Kalule J, Marum E, Hu DJ, Wangalwa S, Smith D, Downing R. Couples at risk: HIV-1 concordance and discordance among sexual partners receiving voluntary counseling and testing in Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 39: 576-580.

Mallon E, Hawkins D, Dinneen M, Francis N, Fearfield L, Newson R, Bunker C. Circumcision and genital dermatoses. Arch Dermatol 2000; 136: 350-354.

Malone P, Steinbrecher H. Medical aspects of male circumcision. Brit Med J 2007; 335: 1206-1209.

Mancuso T, Burns J. Ethical concerns in the management of pain in the neonate. Paediatr Anaesth 2009; 19: 953-957.

Manning SE, Thorpe LE, Ramaswamy C, Hajat A, Marx MA, Karpati AM, Mostashari F, Pfeiffer MR, Nash D. Estimation of HIV prevalence, risk factors, and testing frequency among sexually active men who have sex with men, aged 18-64 years--New York City, 2002. J Urban Health 2007; 84: 212-215.

Mansfield CJ, Hueston WJ, Rudy M. Neonatal circumcision: associated factors and length of hospital stay. J Fam Pract 1995; 41: 370-376.

Mao LM, Templeton DJ, Crawford J, Imrie J, Prestage GP, Grulich AE, Donovan B, Kaldor JM, Kippax SC. Does circumcision make a difference to the sexual experience of gay men? Findings from the Health in Men (HIM) Cohort. J Sex Med 2008; 5: 2557-2561.

Margetts L, Carr A, McFadyen G, Lambert A. A comparison of caudal bupivacaine and ketamine with penile block for paediatric circumcision. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2008; 25: 1009-1013.

Marild S, Hansson S, Jodal U, Oden A, Svedberg K. Protective effect of breastfeeding against urinary tract infection. Acta Paediatr 2004; 93: 164-168.

Marrazzo JM. Sexual tourism: implications for travelers and the destination culture. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2005; 19: 103-120.

Martin G, Bollinger L, Pandit-Rajani T, Tshehlo R, Stover J. Costing male circumcision in Lesotho and implications for ther cost-effectiveness of circumcision as an HIV intervention. USAID/Constella Futures, Health Policy Initiative. Washington, DC, USA., Year.

Marx JL. Circumcision may protect against the AIDS virus. Science 1989; 245: 470-471.

Mascolini M, Kort R, Gilden D. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Clinical and biomedical prevention science. J Int AIDS Soc 2009; 12 (Suppl 1): S4.

Masood S, Patel HRH, Himpson RC, Palmer JH, Mufti GR, Sheriff MKM. Penile sensitivity and sexual satisfaction after circumcision: are we informing men correctly? Urol Int 2005; 75: 62-66.

Masters WH, Johnson VE. Human Sexual Response. 1966. Boston, Little Brown.

Mastro T, Satten G, Nopkesorn T, Sangkharomya S, Longini I. Probability of female-to-male transmission of HIV-1 in Thailand. Lancet 1994; 343: 204-207.

Mastro TM, de Vincenzi I. Probabilities of sexual HIV-1 transmission. AIDS 1996; 10: S75-S82.

Matsota P, Papageorgiou-Brousta M. Intraoperative and postoperative analgesia with subcutaneous ring block of the penis with levobupivacaine for circumcision in children. Eur J Pediatr Surg 2004; 14: 198-202.

Mattelaer JJ, Schipper RA, Das S. The circumcision of Jesus Christ. J Urol 2007; 178: 31-34.

Mattioli G, Repetto P, Carlini C, Granata C, Gambini C, Jasonni V. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in children with phimosis and hypospadias. Pediatr Surg Int 2002; 18: 273-275.

Mattson CL, Bailey RC, Muga R, Poulussen R, Onyango T. Acceptability of male circumcision and predictors of circumcision preference among men and women in Nyanza Province, Kenya. AIDS Care 2005; 17: 182-194.

Mattson CL, Campbell RT, Bailey RC, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Moses S. Risk compensation is not associated with male circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya: a multi-faceted assessment of men enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE 2008; 3: e2443 (9pages).

Maxwell LG, Yaster M. Analgesia for neonatal circumcision. No more studies, just do it. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153: 444-445.

Mbito MN, Malia JA. Transfer of the Kenyan Kikuyu male circumcision ritual to future generations living in the United States. J Adolesc 2009; 32: 39-53.

McCance DJ, Kalache A, Ashdown K, Andrade L, Menezes F, Smith P, Doll R. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in carcinoma of the penis from Brazil. J Cancer 1986; 37: 55-59.

McCoombe SG, Short RV. Potential HIV-1 target cells in the human penis. AIDS 2006; 20: 1491-1495.

McIntosh N. Pain in the newborn, a possible new starting point. Eur J Pediatr 1997; 156: 173-177.

McIver CJ, Rismanto N, Smith C, Naing ZW, Rayner B, Lusk MJ, Konecny P, White PA, Rawlinson WD. Multiplex PCR testing detection of higher-than-expected rates of cervical mycoplasma, ureaplasma, and trichomonas and viral agent infections in sexually active Australian women. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47: 1358-1363.

McKinney CM, Klingler EJ, Paneth-Pollak R, Schillinger JA, Gwynn RC, Frieden TR. Prevalence of adult male circumcision in the general population and a population at increased risk for HIV/AIDS in New York City. Sex Transm Dis 2008; 35: 814-817.

McQuillan GM, Kruszon-Moran D, Kottiri BJ, Kamimoto LA, Lam L, Cowart MF, Hubbard M, Spira TJ. Prevalence of HIV in the US household population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1988 to 2002. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 41: 651-656.

Medicare Australia. Health statistics. 2007a.

Medicare. MBS Online. Medical Benefits Scheme. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing., 2007b.

Mehta SD, Gray RH, Auvert B, Moses S, Kigozi G, Taljaard D, Puren A, Agot K, Serwadda D, Parker CB, Wawer MJ, Bailey RC. Does sex in the early period after circumcision increase HIV-seroconversion risk? Pooled analysis of adult male circumcision clinical trials. AIDS 2009a; 23: 1557-1564.

Mehta SD, Moses S, Agot K, Parker C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Maclean I, Bailey RC. Adult male circumcision does not reduce the risk of incident Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Trichomonas vaginalis Infection: Results from a randomized, controlled trial in Kenya. J Infect Dis 2009b; 200: 370-378.

Meier AS, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Holmes KK. Independent association of hygiene, socioeconomic status, and circumcision with reduced risk of HIV infection among Kenyan men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 43: 117-118.

Meissner O, Buso DL. Traditional male circumcision in the Eastern Cape--scourge or blessing? S Afr Med J 2007; 97: 371-373.

Méndez-Gallart R, Estévez E, Bautista A, Rodríguez P, Taboada P, Armas AL, Pradillos JM, Varela R. Bipolar scissors circumcision is a safe, fast, and bloodless procedure in children. J Pediatr Surg 2009; 44: 2048-2053.

Mercer CH, Fenton KA, Johnson AM, Copas AJ, Macdowall W, Erens B, Wellings K. Who reports sexual function problems? Empirical evidence from Britain's 2000 National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles. Sex Transm Infect 2005; 81: 394-399.

Meuli M, Briner J, Hanimann B, Sacher P. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus causing phimosis in boys: a prospective study with 5-year followup after complete circumcision. J Urol 1994; 152: 987-989.

Micali G, Nasca MR, Innocenzi D, Schwartz RA. Penile cancer. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 54: 369-391.

Micha G, Samanta E, Damigos D, Petridis A, Mavreas V, Livanios S. Impact of an anesthesia discharge scoring system on postoperative monitoring after circumcision in children: a randomized trial. Eur J Pediatr Surg 2009; 19: 293-296.

Mihssin N, Moorthy K, Houghton PW. Retention of urine: an unusual complication of the Plastibell device. BJU Int 1999; 84: 745.

Miller C. Localization of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in the genital tract of male and female rhesus macaques. J Reprod Immunol 1998; 4: 331-339.

Millett GA, Ding H, Lauby J, Flores S, Stueve A, Bingham T, Carballo-Dieguez A, Murrill C, Liu KL, Wheeler D, Liau A, Marks G. Circumcision status and HIV infection among Black and Latino men who have sex with men in 3 US cities. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007; 46: 643-650.

Millett GA, Flores SA, Marks G, Reed JB, Herbst JH. Circumcision status and risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2008; 300: 1674-1684.

Mills E, Cooper C, Anema A, Guyatt G. Male circumcision for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection: a meta-analysis of randomized trials involving 11,050 men. HIV Med 2008; 9: 332-335.

Mindel A, Kippax S. A national sexually transmissible infections strategy: the need for an all-embracing approach. Med J Aust 2005; 183: 502-503.

Molokwu C. Circumcision for preventing HIV. BJU Int 2007; 100: 1411-1412.

Mor Z, Kent CK, Kohn RP, Klausner JD. Declining rates in male circumcision amidst increasing evidence of its public health benefit. PLoS ONE 2007; 2 (4 pages): e861.

Moreno MA, Furtner F, Rivara FP. Advice for patients: Male circumcision: new information about health benefits. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2010; 164: 104.

Morris BJ. In Favour of Circumcision. 1999. Sydney, UNSW Press.

Morris BJ, Bailis SA, Castellsague X, Wiswell TE, Halperin DT. RACP's policy statement on infant male circumcision is ill-conceived. Aust NZ J Publ Hlth 2006a; 30: 16-22.

Morris BJ, Castellsague X, Bailis SA. Re: Cost analysis of neonatal circumcision in a large health maintenance organization. E. J. Schoen, C. J. Colby and T. T. To. J Urol, 175: 1111-1115, 2006. . J Urol 2006b; 176: 2315-2316.

Morris BJ. Why circumcision is a biomedical imperative for the 21st century. BioEssays 2007a; 29: 1147-1158.

Morris BJ. Circumcision in Australia: prevalence and effects on sexual health. Int J STD AIDS 2007b; 18: 69-70.

Morris BJ, Rose BR. Cervical screening in the 21st century: the case for human papillomavirus testing of self-collected specimens. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45: 577-591.

Morris BJ, Waskett J, Bailis SA. Case number and the financial impact of circumcision in reducing prostate cancer. BJU Int 2007; 100: 5-6.

Morris BJ. Male circumcison should be routine. Medical Observer 2009 (10 Apr): 18-19.

Morris BJ, Bailis SA, Waskett JH, Wiswell TE, Halperin DT. Medicaid coverage of newborn circumcision: a health parity right of the poor. Am J Public Health 2009; 99: 969-971.

Morris BJ, Castellsague X. The role of circumcision in prevention of sexually transmitted infections. Gross GE, Tyring S, eds. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Springer, Heidelberg. 2010: in press.

Morris BJ, Cox G. Current medical evidence favors male circumcision. Bolnick DA, Koyle MA, Yosha A, eds. Surgical Guide to Circumcision. Springer, London. 2010:

Morris BJ, Castellsague X. The role of circumcision in preventing STIs. Gross GE, Tyring S, eds. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Springer, Heidelberg. 2010: in press.

Cox G, Morris BJ. Why circumcision – From pre-history to the 21st century. Bolnick DA, Koyle MA, Yosha A, eds. Surgical Guide to Circumcision. Springer, London. 2010:

Moses S, Bradley JE, Nagelkerke NJ, Ronald AR, Ndinya Achola JO, Plummer FA. Geographical patterns of male circumcision practices in Africa: association with HIV seroprevalance. Int J Epidemiol 1990; 19: 693-697.

Moses S, Plummer FA, Bradley JF, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nagelkerke NJ, Ronald AR. The association between lack of male circumcision and risk for HIV infection: a review of the epidemiological data. Sexually Transm Dis 1994; 21: 201-209.

Moses S. Association between lack of male circumcision and risk for HIV infection: Review of the epidemiological evidence. XI Int Conf AIDS, Vancouver, 1996:

Moses S, Bailey RC, Ronald AR. Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks. Sex Transm Inf 1998; 74: 368-373.

Moses S. Male circumcision: a new approach to reducing HIV transmission. Can Med Assoc J 2009; 181: E134-E135.

Moszynski P. WHO recommend circumcision to combat male HIV infections in men in Africa. Brit Med J 2007; 334: 712-713.

Mukherjee S, Joshi A, Carroll D, Chandran H, Parashar K, McCarthy L. What is the effect of circumcision on risk of urinary tract infection in boys with posterior urethral valves? J Pediatr Surg 2009; 44: 417-421.

Münch J, Rücker E, Ständker L, Adermann K, Goffinet C, Schindler M, Wildum S, Chinnadurai R, Rajan D, Specht A, Giménez-Gallego G, Sánchez PC, Fowler DM, Koulov A, Kelly JW, Mothes W, Grivel JC, Margolis L, Keppler OT, Forssmann WG, Kirchhoff F. Semen-derived amyloid fibrils drastically enhance HIV infection. Cell 2007; 131: 1059-1071.

Munro HL, Pradeep BS, Jayachandran AA, Lowndes CM, Mahapatra B, Ramesh BM, Washington R, Jagannathan L, Mendonca K, Moses S, Blanchard JF, Alary M. Prevalence and determinants of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in a general population-based sample in Mysore district, Karnataka state, southern India. AIDS 2008; 22 (suppl 5): S117-S125.

Murray V. Cutting remarks. Men's Style 2008 (28): 39.

Mysorekar IU, Hultgren SJ. Mechanisms of uropathogenic Escherichia coli persistence and eradication from the urinary tract. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103: 14170-14175.


Nagelkerke NJ, Moses S, de Vlas SJ, Bailey RC. Modelling the public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in high prevalence areas in Africa. BMC Infect Dis 2007; 7: 16 (15 pages).

Naimer SA, Trattner A. Are sterile conditions essential for all forms of cutaneous surgery? The case of ritual neonatal circumcision. J Cutan Med Surg 2000; 4: 177-180.

Naja ZA, Ziade FM, Al-Tannir MA, Abi Mansour RM, El-Rajab MA. Addition of clonidine and fentanyl: comparison between three different regional anesthetic techniques in circumcision. Paediatr Anaesth 2005; 15: 964-970.

Nam KH, Kim YT, Kim SR, Kim SW, Kim JW, Lee MK, Nam EJ, Jung YW. Association between bacterial vaginosis and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. J Gynecol Oncol 2009; 20: 39-43.

Narayana AS, Olney LE, Loening SA. Carcinoma of the penis: analysis of 219 cases. Cancer 1982; 49: 2185-2191.

Nasca MR, Innocenzi D, Micali G. Association of penile lichen sclerosus and oncogenic human papillomavirus infection. Int J Dermatol 2006; 45: 681-683.

Nasio JM, Nagelkerke NJ, Mwatha A, Moses S, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA. Genital ulcer disease among STD clinic attenders in Nairobi: association with HIV-1 and circumcision status. Int J STD AIDS 1996; 7: 410-414.

National Center for Health Statistics of the Department of Health and Human Services. Trends in Circumcisions Among Newborns.  2003;

National Conference of State Legislators. State health notes: Circumcision and infection. 2006a;

National Cancer Institute. What you need to know about prostate cancer. 2006b.

Nayir A. Circumcision for the prevention of significant bacteriuria in boys. Pediatr Nephrol 2001; 16: 1129-1134.

Nelson CP, Dunn R, Wan J, Wei JT. The increasing incidence of newborn circumcision: data from the nationwide inpatient sample. J Urol 2005; 173: 978-981.

Newell J, Senkoro K, Mosha F, Grosskurth H, Nicoll A, Barongo L, Borgdorff M, Klokke A, Changalucha J, Killewo J. A population-based study of syphilis and sexually transmitted disease syndromes in north-western Tanzania. 2. Risk factors and health seeking behaviour. Genitourin Med 1993; 69: 421-426.

Newell ML, Barnighausen T. Male circumcision to cut HIV risk in the general population. Lancet 2007; 369: 617-619.

Newman TB, Bernzweig JA, Takayama JI, Finch SA, Wasserman RC, Pantell RH. Urine testing and urinary tract infections in febrile infants seen in office settings: the Pediatric Research in Office Settings' Febrile Infant Study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002; 156: 44-54.

Nguyen DM, Bancroft E, Mascola L, Guevara R, Yasuda L. Risk factors for neonatal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in a well-infant nursery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007; 28: 406-411.

Nicolosi A, Laumann EO, Glasser DB, Moreira ED, Jr., Paik A, Gingell C. Sexual behavior and sexual dysfunctions after age 40: the global study of sexual attitudes and behaviors. Urology 2004; 64: 991-997.

Nielson CM, Harris RB, Dunne EF, Abrahamsen M, Papenfuss MR, Flores R, Markowitz LE, Giuliano AR. Risk factors for anogenital human papillomavirus infection in men. J Infect Dis 2007; 196: 137-145.

Nielson CM, Schiaffino MK, Dunne EF, Salemi JL, Giuliano AR. Associations between male anogenital human papillomavirus infection and circumcision by anatomic site sampled and lifetime number of female sex partners. J Infect Dis 2009; 199: 7-13.

Niku SD, Stock JA, Kaplan GW. Neonatal circumcision [Review]. Urol Clin N Am 1995; 22: 57-65.

Nnko S, Washija R, Urassa M, Boerma JT. Dynamics of male circumcision practices in Northwest Tanzania. Sex Transm Dis 2001; 28: 214-218.

Normile D. Asia grapples with unexpected wave of HIV infections. Science 2009; 326: 1174.

Nyirady P, Borka K, Banfi G, Kelemen Z. [Lichen sclerosus in urological practice] (Hungarian). Orv Hetil 2006; 147: 2125-2129.


O'Brien TR, Calle EE, Poole WK. Incidence of neonatal circumcision in Atlanta, 1985-1986. Southern Med J 1995; 88: 411-415.

O'Donnell H. Circumcision Incidence in Australia.  2004;

O'Farrell N. Enhanced efficiency of female-to-male HIV transmission in core groups in developing countries. Sex Transm Dis 2001; 28: 84-91.

O'Farrell N, Quigley M, Fox P. Association between the intact foreskin and inferior standards of male genital hygiene behaviour: a cross-sectional study. Int J STD AIDS 2005; 16: 556-559.

O'Farrell N, Morison L, Moodley P, Pillay K, Vanmali T, Quigley M, Hayes R, Sturm AW. Association between HIV and subpreputial penile wetness in uncircumcised men in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 43: 69-77.

O'Farrell N, Chung CK, H.A. W. Foreskin length in uncircumcised men is associated with subpreputial wetness. Int J STD AIDS 2008; 19: 821-823.

O'Hara K, O'Hara J. The effect of male circumcision on the sexual enjoyment of the female. BJU Int 1999; 83 (suppl 1): 93-102.

Obasi A, Mosha F, Quigley M, Sekirassa Z, Gibbs T, Munguti K, Todd J, Grosskurth H, Mayaud P, Changalucha J, Brown D, Mabey D, Hayes R. Antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 as a marker of sexual risk behavior in rural Tanzania. J Infect Dis 1999; 179: 16-24.

Oh S-J, Kim KD, Kim KM, Kim KS, Kim KK, Kim JS, Kim HG, Woo YN, Yoon YL, Lee SD, Han SW, Lee SI, Choi H. Knowledge and attitudes of Korean parents towards their son's circumcision: a nationwide questionnaire study. BJU Int 2002; 89: 426-432.

Oh SJ, Kim T, Lim DJ, Choi H. Knowledge of and attitude towards circumcision of adult Korean males by age. Acta Paediatr 2004; 93: 1530-1534.

Ohjimi H, Ogata K, T. O. A new method for the relief of adult phimosis. J Urol 1995; 153: 1607-1609.

Ohjimi T, Ohjimi H. Special surgical techniques for the relief of phimosis. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1981; 7: 326-330.

Oliver JC, Oliver RT, Ballard RC. Influence of circumcision and sexual behaviour on PSA levels in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2001; 4: 228-231.

Oliver RT. Circumcision and/or vaccination against human papillomavirus in the male to prevent infection with human immunodeficiency virus: an early surrogante endpoint for the later prevention of penile, prostate, anal, and oral cancer? . BJU Int 2009; 104: 753-755.

Opjordsmoen S, Waehre H, Aass N, Foss SD. Sexuality in patients treated for penile cancer; patient's experience and doctor's judgement. Br J Urol 1994; 73: 554-560.

Orden B, Martin R, Franco A, Ibanez G, Mendez E. Balanitis caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Pediatr Infect Dis 1996; 15: 920-921.

Orroth KK, Freeman EE, Bakker R, Buve A, Glynn JR, Boily MC, White RG, Habbema JD, Hayes RJ. Understanding the differences between contrasting HIV epidemics in east and west Africa: results from a simulation model of the Four Cities Study. Sex Transm Infect 2007; 83 (Suppl1 1): i5-i16.

Osborne JE. HIV. The more things change, the more they stay the same. Nat Med 1995; 1: 991-993.

Osmond TE. Is routine circumcision advisable? J Roy Army Med Corp 1953; 99: 254.

Oster J. Further fate of the foreskin: incidence of preputial adhesions, phimosis and smegma among Danish schoolboys. Arch Dis Child 1968; 43: 200-203.

Owings MF, Kozak LJ. Ambulatory and inpatient procedures in the United States, 1996. Vital Health Stat 13 1998; 139: 1-119.

Ozdemir E. Significantly increased complication risks with mass circumcisions. Br J Urol 1998; 81: 652.

Ozkan KU, Gonen M, Sahinkanat T, Resim S, Celik M. Wound approximation with tissue glue in circumcision. Int J Urol 2005; 12: 374-377.

Ozkan S, Gurpinar T. A serious circumcision complication: Penile shaft amputation and a new reattachment technique with a successful outcome. J Urol 1997; 158: 1946-1947.

Ozsahin M, Jichlinski P, Weber DC, Azria D, Zimmermann M, Guillou L, Bulling S, Moeckli R, Mirimanoff RO, Zouhair A. Treatment of penile carcinoma: to cut or not to cut? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006; 66: 674-679.


Padian NS, Shoboski SC, Glass SO, Vittingoff E. Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Northern California. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 146: 350-357.

Padian NS, van der Straten A, Ramjee G, Chipato T, de Bruyn G, Blanchard K, Shiboski S, Montgomery ET, Fancher H, Cheng H, Rosenblum M, van der Laan M, Jewell N, McIntyre J. Diaphragm and lubricant gel for prevention of HIV acquisition in southern African women: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007; 370: 251-261.

Palit V, Menebhi DK, Taylor I, Young M, Elmasry Y, Shah T. A unique service in UK delivering Plastibell circumcision: review of 9-year results. Pediatr Surg Int 2007; 23: 45-48.

Palmer LS, Palmer JS. The efficacy of topical betamethasone for treating phimosis: a comparison of two treatment regimens. Urology 2008; 72: 68-71.

Paltiel AD, Freedberg KA, Scott CA, Schackman BR, Losina E, Wang B, Seage GR, 3rd., Sloan CE, Sax PE, Walensky RP. HIV preexposure prophylaxis in the United States: impact on lifetime infection risk, clinical outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48: 806-815.

Pang MG, Kim DS. Extraordinary high rates of male circumcision in South Korea: history and underlying causes. BJU Int 2002; 89: 48-54.

Parkash S, Jeyakumar S, Subramanyan K, Chaudhuri S. Human subpreputial collection: its nature and formation. J Urol 1973; 110: 211-212.

Parker JD, Banatvala JE. Herpes genitalis; clinical and virological studies. Br J Vener Dis 1967; 43: 212-216.

Parker SW, Stewart AJ, Wren MN, Gollow MM, Straton JA. Circumcision and sexually transmissible diseases. Med J Aust 1983; 2: 288-290.

Pascual A, Pariente M, Godínez JM, Sánchez-Prieto R, Atienzar M, Segura M, Poblet E. High prevalence of human papillomavirus 16 in penile carcinoma. Histol Histopathol 2007; 22: 177-183.

Pask AJ, McInnes KJ, Webb DR, Short RV. Topical oestrogen keratinises the human foreskin and may help prevent HIV infection. PLoS One 2008; 3: e2308.

Patrick K. Medical aspects of male circumcision. (Head to Head). Brit Med J 2007; 335: 1181.

Patterson BK, Landy A, Siegel JN, Flener Z, Pessis D, Chaviano A, Bailey RC. Susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection of human foreskin and cervical tissue grown in explant culture. Am J Pathol 2002; 161: 867-873.

Patton JF. Venereal disease. In: United States Army Surgery in World War II. Office of the Surgeon General and Center of Military History, United States Army. pp 45-66.  1987a.

Patton JF. Urology. In United States Army Surgery in World War II. Office of the Surgeon General and Center of Military History, pp 45-88. (See pages 52, 64, 100, 120, 121, 145, 146, 183, 488). 1987b.

Payne K, Thaler L, Kukkonen T, Carrier S, Binik Y. Sensation and sexual arousal in circumcised and uncircumcised men. J Sex Med 2007a; 4: 667-674.

Payne KA, Binik YM, Pukall CF, Thaler L, Amsel R, Khalifé S. Effects of sexual arousal on genital and non-genital sensation: a comparison of women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome and healthy controls. Arch Sex Behav 2007b; 36: 289-300.

Peipert JF. Genital chlamydial infections. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 2424-2430.

Peltzer K, Niang CI, Muula AS, Bowa K, Okeke L, Boiro H, Chimbwete C. Male circumcision, gender and HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: a (social science) research agenda. J Soc Asp HIV/AIDS (SAHARA J) 2007; 4: 658-667.

Peltzer K, Nqeketo A, Petros G, Kanta X. Traditional circumcision during manhood initiation rituals in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: a pre-post intervention evaluation. BMC Public Health 2008; 19 (6 pages): 64.

Peltzer K, Kanta X. Medical circumcision and manhood initiation rituals in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: a post intervention evaluation. Cult Health Sex 2009; 11: 83-97.

Peng YF, Cheng Y, Wang GY, Wang SQ, Jia C, Yang BH, Zhu R, Jian SC, Li QW, Geng DW. Clinical application of a new device for minimally invasive circumcision. Asian J Androl 2008; 10: 447-454.

Pepin J, Quigby M, Todd J, Gage I, Jenneh M, Van-Dyck E, Rot P, Whittle H. Association between HIV-2 infection and genital ulcer disease among male sexually transmitted disease patients in The Gambia. AIDS 1992; 6: 489-493.

Perceau G, Derancourt C, Clavel C, Durlach A, Pluot M, Lardennois B, Bernard P. Lichen sclerosus is frequently present in penile squamous cell carcinomas but is not always associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus. Br J Dermatol 2003; 148: 934-938.

Perera CL, Bridgewater FH, Thavaneswaran P, Maddern GJ. Nontherapeutic male circumcision: tackling the difficult issues. J Sex Med 2009; 6: 2237-2243.

Périssé AR, Schechter M, Blattner W. Association between male circumcision and prevalent HIV infections in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2009; 50: 435-437.

Peters B, Whittall T, Babaahmady K, Gray K, Vaughan R, Lehner T. Effect of heterosexual intercourse on mucosal alloimmunisation and resistance to HIV-1 infection. Lancet 2004; 363: 518-524.

Peters KM, Kass EJ. Electrosurgery for routine pediatric penile procedures. J Urol 1997; 157: 1453-1455.

Peterson L, Taylor D, Roddy R, Belai G, Phillips P, Nanda K, Grant R, Clarke EE, Doh AS, Ridzon R, Jaffe HS, Cates W. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for prevention of HIV infection in women: a phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS Clin Trials 2007; 2: e27.

Peto J. Cancer epidemiology in the last century and the next decade. Nature 2001; 411: 390-395.

Pettifor AE, Rees HV, Kleinschmidt I, Steffenson AE, MacPhail C, Hlongwa-Madikizela L, Vermaak K, Padian NS. Young people's sexual health in South Africa: HIV prevalence and sexual behaviors from a nationally representative household survey. AIDS 2005; 19: 1525-1534.

Pieretti RV, Pieretti A, Pieretti-Vanmarcke R. Circumcised hypospadias. Pediatr Surg Int 2008; 25: 53-55.

Pietrzak P, Hadway P, Corbishley CM, Watkin NA. Is the association between balanitis xerotica obliterans and penile carcinoma underestimated? BJU Int 2006; 98: 74-76.

Pilcher H. Snapshot of a pandemic. Nature 2004; 430: 135.

Pileggi Fd, Vicente YA. Phimotic ring topical corticoid cream (0.1% mometasone furoate) treatment in children. J Pediatr Surg 2007; 42: 1749-1752.

Pincock S. Workforce biggest barrier to roll-out of male circumcision. Lancet 2007; 370: 1817-1818.

Plank RM, Makhema J, Kebaabetswe P, Hussein F, Lesetedi C, Halperin D, Bassil B, Shapiro R, Lockman S. Acceptability of infant male circumcision as part of HIV prevention and male reproductive health efforts in Gaborone, Botswana, and surrounding areas. AIDS Behav 2010: [Epub ahead of print Nov 19, 2009].

Plaut A, Kohn-Speyer AC. The carcinogenic action of smegma. Science 1947; 105: 391-392.

Podder CN, Sharomi O, Gumel AB, Moses S. To cut or not to cut: A modeling approach for assessing the role of male circumcision in HIV control. Bull Math Biol 2007; 69: 2447-2466.

Ponsky LE, Ross JH, Knipper N, Kay R. Penile adhesions after neonatal circumcision. J Urol 2000; 164: 495-496.

Porter FL, Wolf CM, Miller JP. Procedural pain in newborn infants: The influence of intensity and development. Pediatrics 1999; 104: e13.

Potts M, Prata N, Walsh J, Grossman A. Parachute approach to evidence based medicine. Brit Med J 2006; 333: 701-703.

Potts M, Halperin DT, Kirby D, Swidler A, Marseille E, Klausner JD, Hearst N, Wamai RG, Kahn J, Walsh J. Reassessing HIV prevention. Science 2008; 320: 749-750.

Powell J, Robson A, Cranston D, Wojnarowska F, Turner R. High incidence of lichen sclerosus in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. Br J Dermatol 2001; 145: 85-89.

Prais D, Shoov-Furman R, Amir J. Is ritual circumcision a risk factor for neonatal urinary tract infections? Arch Dis Child 2009; 94: 191-194.

Pratt-Thomas HR, Heins HC, Latham E, Dennis EJ, McIver FA. Carcinogenic effect of human smegma: An experimental study. Cancer 1956; 9: 671-680.


Qin Q, Zheng XY, Wang YY, Shen HF, Sun F, Ding W. Langerhans' cell density and degree of keratinization in foreskins of Chinese preschool boys and adults. Int Urol Nephrol 2009; 41: 747-753.

Quaba O, MacKinlay GA. Changing trends in a decade of circumcision in Scotland. J Pediatr Surg 2004; 39: 1037-1039.

Quayle SS, Coplen DE, Austin PF. The effect of healthcare coverage on circumcision rates among newborns. J Urol 2003; 170: 1533-1536.

Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo N, Serwadda D, Li C, Wabwire-Mangen F, Meehan MO, Lutalo T, Gray RH. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 921-929.

Quinn TC. Circumcision and HIV transmission. (Review). Curr Opin Infect Dis 2007; 20: 33-38.

Quinn TC. HIV epidemiology and the effects of antiviral therapy on long-term consequences. AIDS 2008; 22 (Suppl 3): S7-S12.


Rabin RC. Officials weigh circumcision to fight H.I.V. risk. New York Times 2009 (

Rabinowitz R, Hullbert W. Newborn circumcision should not be performed without anesthesia. Birth 1995; 22: 45-46.

Radhakrishnan S, Lee A, Oliver T, Chinegwundoh F. An infectious cause for prostate cancer. BJU Int 2007; 99: 239-240.

Rain-Taljaard RC, Lagarde E, Taljaard DJ, Campbell C, MacPhail C, Williams B, Auvert B. Potential for an intervention based on male circumcision in a South African town with high levels of HIV infection. AIDS Care 2003; 15: 315-327.

Rakwar J, Lavreys L, Thompson ML, Jackson D, Bwayo J, Hassanali S, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss J. Cofactors in the acquisition of HIV-1 among heterosexual men: prospective cohort study of trucking company workers in Kenya. AIDS 1999; 13: 607-614.

Ramet J, Benatar A, Diltoer M, Spapen H, Huyghens L. Neonatal circumcision. Lancet 1997; 349: 1257.

Ramjee G, Govinden R, Morar NS, Mbewu A. South Africa's experience of the closure of the cellulose sulphate microbicide trial. PLoS Med 2007; 4: e235.

Ranjan N, Singh SK. Malignant transformation of penile lichen sclerosus: exactly how common is it? Int J Dermatol 2008; 47: 1308-1309.

Rattaz C, Goubet N, Bullinger A. The calming effect of a familiar odor on full-term newborns. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2005; 26: 86-92.

Ravich A, Ravich RA. Prophylaxis of cancer of the prostate, penis, and cervix by circumcision. N Y State J Med 1951; 51: 1519-1520.

Reddy CR, Devendranath V, Pratap S. Carcinoma of penis: role of phimosis. Urology 1984; 24: 85-88.

Reddy DG, Baruah IK. Carcinogenic action of human smegma. Arch Pathol 1963; 75: 414.

Remondino PC. History of circumcision: From the earliest times to the present: Moral and physical reasons for its performance, with a history of eunuchism, hermaphrodism, etc and of the different operations practiced upon the prepuce. Physicians' and students' ready reference series; No. 11. (Republished 1990). 1891. Philadelphia, FA Davis Co.

Rennie S, Muula AS, Westreich D. Male circumcision and HIV prevention: ethical, medical and public health tradeoffs in low-income countries. J Med Ethics 2007; 33: 357-361.

Reynolds SJ, Shepherd ME, Risbud AR, Gangakhedkar RR, Brookmeyer RS, Divekar AD, Mehendale SM, Bollinger RC. Male circumcision and risk of HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections in India. Lancet 2004; 363: 1039-1040.

Richman DD, Margolis DM, Delaney M, Greene WC, Hazuda D, Pomerantz RJ. The challenge of finding a cure for HIV infection. Science 2009; 323: 1304-1307.

Richters J, Gerofi J, Donovan B. Are condoms the right size(s)? A method for self-measurement of the erect penis. . Venereology 1995; 8: 77-81.

Richters J, Smith AM, de Visser RO, Grulich AE, Rissel CE. Circumcision in Australia: prevalence and effects on sexual health. Int J STD AIDS 2006; 17: 547-554.

Rickwood AMK, Walker J. Is phimosis overdiagnosed in boys and are too many circumcisions performed in consequence? Ann Coll Surg Engl 1989; 71: 275-277.

Rickwood AMK, Kenny SE, Donnell SC. Towards evidence based circumcision of English boys: survey of trends in practice. Brit Med J 2000; 321: 792-793.

Ries LAG, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, Millar BA, Edwards BK, eds. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973-1995. 1998. Bethesda, MD, National Cancer Institute.

Risser JM, Risser WL, Eissa MA, Cromwell PF, Barratt MS, Bortot A. Self-assessment of circumcision status by adolescents. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 159: 1095-1097.

Roan NR, Greene WC. A seminal finding for understanding HIV transmission. Cell 2007; 131: 1044-1046.

Roberts JA. Does circumcision prevent urinary tract infections? J Urol 1986; 135: 991-992.

Roberts JA. Neonatal circumcision: an end to the controversy? (Review). South Med J 1996; 89: 167-171.

Roberts JN, Buck CB, Thompson CD, Kines R, Bernardo M, Choyke PL, Lowy DR, Schiller JT. Genital transmission of HPV in a mouse model is potentiated by nonoxynol-9 and inhibited by carrageenan. Nat Med 2007; 13: 857-861.

Roberts KB. Urinary tract infections in young febrile infants: is selective testing acceptable? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002; 156: 6-7.

Robinson R, Makin E, Wheeler R. Consent for non-therapeutic male circumcision on religious grounds. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2009; 91: 152-154.

Rodriguez V, Titapiwatanakun R, Moir C, Schmidt KA, Pruthi RK. To circumcise or not to circumcise? Circumcision in patients with bleeding disorders. Haemophilia 2009: [Epub ahead of print Oct 21].

Roehr B. Dramatic drop in HIV infections halts circumcision trials. Brit Med J 2007; 334: 11.

Roehr B. Circumcison helps to prevent HIV acquisition, says Cochrane review. BMJ 2009; 338: 905.

Ross AK, Eck JB, Tobias JD. Pediatric regional anesthesia: Beyond the caudal. Anesth Analg 2000; 91: 16-26.

Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A, Henderson BE. The etiology of prostate cancer: What does the epidemiology suggest? Prostate 1983; 4: 333-344.

Ross RK, Shimizu H, Paganini-Hill A, Honda G, Henderson BE. Case-control studies of prostate cancer in blacks and whites in southern California. J Natl Cancer Inst 1987; 78: 869-874.

Rossi E, Pavanello P, Franchella A. Lichen sclerosus in children with phimosis. Minerva Pediatr 2007; 59: 761-765.

Rotheram-Borus MJ, Swendeman D, Chovnick G. The past, present, and future of HIV prevention: integrating behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies for the next generation of HIV prevention. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2009; 5: 143-167.

Rushton HG, Majd M. Pyelonephritis in male infants: how important is the foreskin? J Urol 1992a; 148: 733-736.

Rushton HG, Majd M. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy for the evaluation of pyelonephritis and scarring: a review of experimental and clinical studies. J Urol 1992b; 148: 1726-1732.

Rushton HG. The evaluation of acute pyelonephritis and renal scarring with technetium 99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy: evolving concepts and future directions. Pediatr Nephrol 1997a; 11: 108-120.

Rushton HG. Urinary tract infections in children. Epidemiology, evaluation, and management. Pediatr Clin North Am 1997b; 44: 1133-1169.

Russell CT, Chaseling J. Topical anaesthesia in neonatal circumcision: a study of 208 consecutive cases. Aust Fam Physician 1996; 25 (suppl 1): 30-34.

Russell T. The case for circumcision. Med Observer 1993 (1 Oct issue).

Russell T. Spilsbury mantra not the answer. ANZ J Surg 2004; 74: 78-79.

Russell T. Non-circumcision a legal risk. Law in Practice 2005; Aug issue.

Circumcision Info

What is circumcision?
Who in the world gets circumised?
The circumcision debate.
Circumcision history and recent trends.
Position statements by national pediatric bodies.
Why the foreskin increases infection risk.
Circumcision - 'shapshot' of health benefits + reviews.
Different specialists see different things.
Circumcision - benefits outweigh the risks.
Pain and memory.
Penile hygiene.
What motivates parents to baby boy circumcision.
Rates of circumcision.
Physical problems.
Inflammatory dermatoses.
Urinary tract infections.
Sexually transmitted infections.
Cancer of the penis.
Prostate cancer.
Cervical cancer in female partners of uncircumcised men.
Breast cancer in female partners of uncircumcised men.
Herpes simplex type 2 virus in women.
Chlamydia in women.
Trichomonas in women.
Bacterial vaginosis in women.
HIV: the AIDS virus.
Circumcision Socio-sexual aspects.
Circumcision - sensitivity, sensation & sexual function.
Circumcision - societal class distinction.
Circumcision prevents infibulation.
Circumcision procedure.
Circumcision & Anesthesia.
Cost of the Circumcision procedure.
Cost benefit of Circumcision.
Circumcision - how do I find someone to do it?.
Circumcision - whose responsibility?
Risks in infants.
Circumcision - risks in adults & older boys.
Circumcision - breastfeeding outcomes and cognitive ability.
Circumcision, does it affect penis length?
Circumcision - why are human males born with a foreskin?
Circumcision - best not to delay til later.
Circumcision - what caused many cultures to ritually remove the foreskin?
In Alphabetical Order
(A – I)(J – R)(S – Z)
Brochures, circumcision information guide.
Anti Circumcision
Anti-circumcision lobby groups.
Links & Resources
Circumcision websites & online discussion groups.
BOOK: "In Favour of Circumcision".
About the Author - Professor Emeritus Brian J. Morris.
Adult circumcision stories - testimonials and more.
Donations Welcome
• Donations