Sahasrabuddhe VV, Vermund SH. The future of HIV prevention: control of sexually transmitted infections and circumcision interventions. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2007; 21: 241-257.
Sahin F, Beyazova U, Akturk A. Attitudes and practices regarding circumcision in Turkey. Child Care Health Dev 2003; 29: 275-280.
Saitmacher F. Socialhygienische Betrachtungen zu einer Routinemassigen Zikumzision Mannlicher Sauglinge. Dtsche Gesundheitwesen 1960; 15: 1217-1220.
Samad A, Khanzada TW, Kumar B. Plastibell circumcision: A minor surgical procedure of major importance. J Pediatr Urol 2009 (Epub ahead of print; June 12).
Sanchez J, Lama JR, Peinado J, Paredes A, Lucchetti A, Russell K, Kochel T, Sebastian JL. High HIV and ulcerative sexually transmitted infection incidence estimates among men who have sex with men in Peru: awaiting for an effective preventive intervention. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2009; 51 (Suppl 1): S47-S51.
Sanchez Merino JM, Parra Muntaner L, Jiminez Rodriguez M, Valerdiz Casola S, Monsalve Rodriguez M, Garcia Alonso J. Epidoid carcinoma of the penis. Arch Esp Urol 2000; 53: 799-808.
Sanchez T, Finlayson T, Drake A, Behel S, Cribbin M, Dinenno E, Hall T, Kramer S, Lansky A. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk, prevention, and testing behaviors--United States, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System: men who have sex with men, November 2003-April 2005. MMWR Surveill Summ 2006; 55: 1-16.
Sandeman DJ, Dilley AV. Ultrasound guided dorsal penile nerve block in children. Anaesth Intensive Care 2007; 35: 266-269.
Sandeman TF. Carcinoma of the penis. Australasian Radiol 1990; 34: 12-16.
Sandler G, Patrick E, Cass D. Long standing balanitis xerotica obliterans resulting in renal impairment in a child. Pediatr Surg Int 2008; 24: 961-964.
Sansom S, Hutchinson AB, An Q, Hall I, Lasry A, Taylor A. Efect of circumcision on U.S. males' expected lifetime cost of HIV. 29th Annual Meeting of the Society for medical Decision Making, Oct 20-24 2007: P4-16.
Sansom SL, Prabhu VS, Hutchinson AB, An Q, Hall HI, Shrestha RK, Lasry A, Taylor AW. Cost-effectiveness of newborn circumcision in reducing lifetime HIV risk among U.S. males. PLoS One 2010; 5: e8723 (8 pages).
Sateren WB, Foglia G, Renzullo PO, Elson L, Wasunna M, Bautista CT, Birx DL. Epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in agricultural plantation residents in Kericho, Kenya: preparation for vaccine feasibility studies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 43: 102-106.
Sayed EI, Viraben R, Bazex J, Daste G, Gorguet B, Rishmann R. Carcinome verruqueux du penis. Nouv Dermatol 1993; 12: 112-113.
Scharlieb M, Silby FA. Youth and Sex. Dangers and Safeguards for Girls and Boys. 1913. London, Dodge Publishing Co.
Schlaberg R, Choe DJ, Brown KR, Thaker HM, Singh IR. XMRV is present in malignant prostatic epithelium and is associated with prostate cancer, especially high-grade tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009; 106: 16351-16356.
Schlosberger NM, Turner RA, Irwin CE, Jr. Early adolescent knowledge and attitudes about circumcision: methods and implications for research. J Adolescent Hlth 1992; 13: 293-297.
Schmid GP, Buve A, Mugyeny P, Garnett GP, Hayes RJ, Williams BG, Calleja JG, De Cock KM, Whitworth JA, Kapiga SH, Ghys PD, Hankins C, Zaba B, Heimer R, Boerma JT. Transmission of HIV-1 infection in sub-Saharan Africa and effect of elimination of unsafe injections. Lancet 2004; 363: 482-488.
Schneider JA, Dude A, Dinaker M, Kumar V, Laumann EO, Holloway-Beth A, Oruganti G, Saluja GS, Chundi V, Yeldandi V, Mayer KH. General hygiene, sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence in truck drivers from Andhra Pradesh, South India: implications for prevention interventions. Int J STD AIDS 2009; 20: 39-45.
Schoeberlein W. Bedeutung und Haeufigkeit von Phimose und Smegma. [Significance and frequency ofr phimosis and smegma.] (Translated by Kasper JP, 1997; edited by Bailis SA, 1997). Muench Med Wschr 1966; 7: 373-377.
Schoen EJ. The status of circumcision of newborns. N Engl J Med 1990; 332: 1308-1312.
Schoen EJ. The relationship between circumcision and cancer of the penis. CA Cancer J Clin 1991; 41: 306-309.
Schoen EJ. Circumcision updated implicated? Pediatrics 1993; 92: 860-861.
Schoen EJ. Neonatal circumcision and penile cancer. Evidence that circumcision is protective is overwhelming. Br Med J 1996; 46: 313.
Schoen EJ, Colby CJ, Ray GT. Newborn circumcision decreases incidence and costs of urinary tract infections in the first year of life. Pediatrics 2000a; 105: 789-793.
Schoen EJ, Oehrli M, Colby CJ, Machin G. The highly protective effect of newborn circumcision against invasive penile cancer. Pediatrics 2000b; 105: e36 (4 pages).
Schoen EJ, Wiswell TE, Moses S. New policy on circumcision Cause for concern. Pediatrics 2000c; 105: 620-623.
Schoen EJ, Wiswell TE, Moses S. Reply to Carole M. Lannon and the task force on circumcision. [Letter]. Pediatrics 2001; 108: 211.
Schoen EJ, Bhatia S, Ray GT, Clapp W, To TT. Transient pseudohypoaldosteronism with hyponatremia-hyperkalemia in infant urinary tract infection. J Urol 2002; 167 (2 Part 1): 680-682.
Schoen EJ. Ed Schoen, MD on Circumcision: timely information for Parents and Professionals from America's #1 Expert on Circumcision. 2005a. Berkeley, CA, RDR Books.
Schoen EJ. Circumcision: Timely Information for Parents and Professionals from America's #1 Expert on Circumcision. 2005b. RDR Books, Berkeley, CA.
Schoen EJ. Circumcision for preventing urinary tract infections in boys: North American view. Arch Dis Child 2005c; 90: 772-773.
Schoen EJ. Ignoring evidence of circumcision benefits. Pediatrics 2006a; 118: 385-387.
Schoen EJ. Comment on: The increasing incidence of newborn circumcision: data from the nationwide inpatient sample. C.P. Nelson, R. Dunn, J. Wan and J.T. Wei. J Urol, 173: 978-81, 2005. J Urol 2006b; 175: 394-395.
Schoen EJ, Colby CJ, To TT. Cost analysis of neonatal circumcision in a large health maintenance organization. J Urol 2006; 175: 1111-1115.
Schoen EJ. Critique of Van Howe RS. Incidence of meatal stenosis following neonatal circumcision in a primary care setting. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2006;45:49-54. Clin Paeiatr (Phila) 2007a; 46: 86.
Schoen EJ. Re: circumcision--are you with us or against us? J. S. Elder J Urol 2006; 176: 1911. J Urol 2007b; 178: 354-355.
Schoen EJ. Should newborns be circumcised? Yes. Can Fam Physician 2007c; 53: 2096-2097.
Schoen EJ. Circumcision as a lifetime vaccination with many benefits. J Men's Hlth Gender 2007d; 4: 306-311.
Schoen EJ. Male circumcision. Male Sexual Dysfunction. Pathophysiology and Treatment. Kandeel FR, Lue TF, Pryor JL, Swerdloff RS. New York, Informa. 2007e, 95-107.
Schoen EJ. Circumcision, Sex, God and Science. 2008. San Francisco, self-published.
Schroeder AR, Newman TB, Wasserman RC, Finch SA, Pantell RH. Choice of urine collection methods for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in young, febrile infants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005; 159: 915-922.
Schwartz O. Langerhans cells lap up HIV-1. Nat Med 2007; 13: 245-246.
Schwarz GS. Infibulation, population control, and the medical profession. Bull NY Acad Med 1970; 46: 964-980.
Schwebke JR, Desmond R. Risk factors for bacterial vaginosis in women at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Sex Transm Dis 2005; 32: 654-658.
Scott BE, Weiss HA, Viljoen JI. The acceptability of male circumcision as an HIV intervention among a rural Zulu population, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. AIDS Care 2005; 17: 304-313.
Senba M, Kumatori A, Fujita S, Jutavijittum P, Yousukh A, Moriuchi T, Nakamura T, Toriyama K. The prevalence of human papillomavirus genotypes in penile cancers from northern Thailand. J Med Virol 2006; 78: 1341-1346.
Senkul T, Iseri C, Sen B, Karademir K, Saracoglu F, Erden D. Circumcision in adults: Effect on sexual function. Urology 2004; 63: 155-158.
Senol MG, Sen B, Karademir K, Sen H, Saraçoğlu M. The effect of male circumcision on pudendal evoked potentials and sexual satisfaction. Acta Neurol Belg 2008; 108: 90-93.
Serour F, Samra Z, Kushel Z, Gorenstein A, Dan M. Comparative periurethral bacteriology of uncircumcised and circumcised males. Genitourin Med 1997; 73: 288-290.
Seyam RM, Bissada NK, Mokhtar AA, Mourad WA, Aslam M, Elkum N, Kattan SA, Hanash KA. Outcome of penile cancer in circumcised men. J Urol 2006; 175: 557-561.
Shaeer O. Restoration of the penis following amputation at circumcision: Shaeer's A-Y plasty. J Sex Med 2008; 5: 1013-1021.
Shaeer O, El-Sebaie A, Sherif A, El-Sadat A, Shaeer A. Glans reconfiguration for management of glanular mutilation. J Sex Med 2008; 5: 500-503.
Shaffer DN, Ngetich IK, Bautista CT, Sawe FK, Renzullo PO, Scott PT, Kibaya RM, Imbuki KO, Michael NL, Birx DL, Wasunna MK, Robb ML. HIV-1 incidence rates and risk factors in agricultural workers and dependents in rural Kenya: 36-month follow-up of the Kericho HIV cohort study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2009: [Epub ahead of print Oct 22].
Shaikh N, Morone NE, Bost JE, Farrell MH. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in childhood: a meta-analysis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2008; 27: 302-308.
Sharlip I. Circumcision and the risk of HIV transmission in Africa. J Sex Med 2008; 5: 2481-2484.
Shaw KN, Gorelick M, McGowan KL, Yakscoe NM, Schwartz JS. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in febrile young children in the emergency department. Pediatrics 1998; 102: e16.
Shearn MA, Shearn L. Profile: Louis XVI. Med Aspects Hum Sexuality 1983; 17: 139-140.
Shechet J, Fried SM, Tanenbaum B. Local anesthesia for infants undergoing circumcision. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 279: 1170.
Shelton JD, Halperin DT, Wilson D. Has global HIV incidence peaked? Lancet 2006; 367: 1120-1122.
Shelton JD. Ten myths and one truth about generalised HIV epidemics. Lancet 2007; 370: 1809-1811.
Shim YH, Lee JW, Lee SJ. The risk factors of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants with normal urinary systems. Pediatr Nephrol 2009; 24: 309-312.
Short RV. The HIV/AIDS pandemic: New ways of preventing infection in men. Reprod Fert Devel 2004a; 16: 555-559.
Short RV. Male circumcision: a scientific perspective. J Med Ethics 2004b; 30: 241.
Short RV. New ways of preventing HIV infection: thinking simply, simply thinking. (Review). Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2006; 361: 811-820.
Siegfried N, Muller M, Deeks J, Volmink J, Egger M, Low N, Walker S, Williamson P. HIV and male circumcision--a systematic review with assessment of the quality of studies. Lancet Inf Dis 2005; 5: 165-173.
Siegfried N, Muller M, Deeks JJ, Volmink J. Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; CD003362 (38 pp).
Silverman EK. Anthropology and circumcision. Annu Rev Anthropol 2004; 33: 419-445.
Simonsen JNM, Cameron DW, Gakinya MN, Ndinya-Achola JO, D'Costa LJ, Karasira P. HIV infection among men with STDs. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 274-278.
Singh S, Bunker C. Male genital dermatoses in old age. Age Ageing 2008; 37: 500-504.
Singh-Grewal D, Macdessi J, Craig J. Circumcision for the prevention of urinary tract infections in boys: a systematic review of randomized trials and observational studies. Arch Dis Child 2005; 90: 853-858.
Slaymaker E. A critique of international indicators of sexual risk behaviour. Sex Transm Infect 2004; 80 (Suppl 2): ii13-ii21.
Smellie JM. Reflections on 30 years of treating children with urinary tract infections. J Urol 1991; 146 (Part 2): 665-668.
Smith DK, Taylor A, Kilmarx PH, Sullivan P, Warner L, Kamb L, Bock N, Kohmescher B, Mastro TD. Male circumcision in the United States for the prevention of HIV infection and other adverse health outcomes: report from a CDC consultation. Public Health Reports 2010; 125: 72-82.
Smith G, Greenup R, Takafuji E. Circumcision as a risk factor for urethritis in racial groups. Am J Publ Health 1987; 77: 452-454.
Smith JS, Backes DM, Hudgens MG, Bailey RC, Veronesi G, Bogaarts M, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Maclean I, Agingu W, Meijer CJ, Moses S, Snijders PJ. Prevalence and risk factors of human papillomavirus infection by penile site in uncircumcised Kenyan men. Int J Cancer 2009; 126: 572-577.
Smith SM, Mefford M, Sodora D, Klase Z, Singh M, Alexander N, Hess D, Marx PA. Topical estrogen protects against SIV vaginal transmission without evidence of systemic effect. AIDS 2004; 18: 1637-1643.
Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Taljaard D, Lissouba P, Zarca K, Puren A, Lagarde E, Auvert B. Effect of HSV-2 serostatus on acquisition of HIV by young men: results of a longitudinal study in Orange Farm, South Africa. J Infect Dis 2009a; 199: 958-964.
Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Taljaard D, Nieuwoudt M, Lissouba P, Puren A, Auvert B. Male circumcision and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis: observations in the aftermath of a randomised controlled trial for HIV prevention. Sex Transm Infect 2009b; 85: 116-120.
Solsona E, Algaba F, Horenblas S, Pizzocaro G, Windahl T. EAU Guidelines on Penile Cancer. Eur Urol 2004; 46: 1-8.
Sonmez F, Yazici M, Aydin N, Eyigor M, Univar T, Inan G, Gurel M. Possible asymptomatic carrier of Salmonella typhimurium in the preputium: a case report. Turk J Pediatr 2001; 43: 76-78.
Sorrells ML, Snyder JL, Reiss MD, Eden C, Milos MF, Wilcox N, Van Howe RS. Fine-touch pressure thresholds in the adult penis. BJU Int 2007; 99: 864-869.
Soto-Ramirez LE. HIV/AIDS in Latin America. Science 2008; 321: 465.
South MM, Strauss RA, South AP, Boggess JF, Thorp JM. The use of non-nutritive sucking to decrease the physiologic pain response during neonatal circumcision: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 193: 537-542.
Spach DH, Stapleton AE, Stamm WE. Lack of circumcision increases the risk of urinary tract infections in young men. J Am Med Assoc 1992; 267: 679-681.
Speert H. Circumcision of the newborn; an appraisal of its present status. Obstet Gynecol 1953; 2: 164-172.
Spigelman M. Circumcision in ancient Egypt. Ritual or medical necessity. http://www.nd.edu/~sheridan/SpigelmanVita.pdf. Bull Australian Centre for Egyptology 1997; 8: 90-100.
Stang H, Snellman L, Condon L, Conroy M, Liebo R, Brodersen L, Gunnar M. Beyond dorsal penile nerve block: A more humane circumcision. Pediatrics 1997; 100: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/100/2/e3.
Stang HJ, Snellman LW. Circumcision practice patterns in the United States. Pediatrics 1998; 101: E51-E56.
Stark JR, Judson G, Alderete JF, Mundodi V, Kucknoor AS, Giovannucci EL, Platz EA, Sutcliffe S, Fall K, Kurth T, Ma J, Stampfer MJ, Mucci LA. Prospective study of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and prostate cancer incidence and mortality: Physicians' Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009; 101: 1406-1411.
Stemple L. Health and human rights in today's fight against HIV/AIDS. AIDS 2008; 22 (Suppl 2): S113-S121.
Stenram A, Malmfors G, Okmian L. Circumcision for phimosis indications and results. Acta Paediat Scand 1986a; 75: 321-323.
Stenram A, Malmfors G, Okmian L. Circumcision for phimosis: a follow-up study. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1986b; 20: 89-92.
Stephenson J. New HIV prevention strategies urged: averting new infections key to controlling pandemic. J Am Med Assoc 2004; 292: 1163-1164.
Stern E, Lachenbruch PA. Circumcision information in a cancer detection center population. J Chronic Dis 1968; 21: 117-124.
Sternberg WF, Scorr L, Smith LD, Ridgway CG, Stout M. Long-term effects of neonatal surgery on adulthood pain behavior. Pain 2005; 113: 347-353.
Stewart CM. Infections and related conditions. In: United States Army Surgery in World War II. Office of the Surgeon General and Center of Military History, United States Army. pp. 99-146. 1987.
Stone KM, Karem KL, Sternberg MR, McQuillan GM, Poon AD, Unger ER, Reeves WC. Seroprevalence of human papillomavirus type 16 infection in the United States. J Infect Dis 2002; 186: 1396-1402.
Stull TL, LiPuma JJ. Epidemiology and natural history of urinary tract infections in children [Review]. Med Clin N Am 1991; 75: 287-297.
Su CY, Yin YL. The relationship between preputial condition and personal hygienic practice of senior school boys in two primary schools. J Fam Med ROC 2001; 11: 153-163.
Subramaniam R, Jacobsen AS. Sutureless circumcision: a prospective randomised controlled study. Pediatr Surg Int 2004; 20: 783-785.
Suligoi B, Tchamgmena O, Sarmati L, Bugarini R, Toma L, Bakary DK, Glikoutou M, Rezza G. Prevalence and risk factors for herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among adolescents and adults in northern Cameroon. Sex Transm Dis 2001; 28: 690-693.
Sullivan PS, Kilmarx PH, Peterman TA, Taylor AW, Nakashima AK, Kamb ML, Warner L, Mastro TD. Male circumcision for prevention of HIV transmission: what the new data mean for HIV prevention in the United States. PLoS Med 2007; 4 (e223): 1162-1166.
Sullivan SG, Ma W, Duan S, Li F, Wu Z, Detels R. Attitudes towards circumcision among Chinese men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2009; 50: 238-240.
Sureshkumar P, Jones M, Cumming RG, Craig JC. Risk factors for urinary tract infection in children: a population-based study of 2856 children. J Paediatr Child Health 2009; 45: 87-97.
Svare EI, Kjaer SK, Worm AM, Osterlind A, Meijer CJ, van den Brule AJ. Risk factors for genital HPV DNA in men resemble those found in women: a study of male attendees at a Danish STD clinic. Sex Transm Infect 2002; 78: 215-218.
Szabo R, Short RV. How does male circumcision protect against HIV infection? Brit Med J 2000; 320: 1592-1594.
Tabet S, Sanchez J, Lama J, Goicochea P, Campos P, Rouillon M, Cairo JL, Ueda L, Watts D, Celum C, Holmes KK. HIV, syphilis and heterosexual bridging among Peruvian men who have sex with men. AIDS 2002; 16: 1271-1277.
Taddio A, Katz J, Herisch AL, G. K. Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet 1997a; 349: 599-603.
Taddio A, Stevens B, Craig K, Rastogi P, Bendavid S, Shennan A, Mulligan P, Koren G. Efficacy and safety of lidocaine-prilocaine cream for pain during circumcision. N Engl J Med 1997b; 336: 1197-1201.
Taddio A, Pollock N, Gilbert-Macleod C, Ohlsson K, Koren G. Combined analgesia and local anesthesia to minimize pain during circumcision. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2000; 154: 620-623.
Taddio A, Gurguis MG, Koren G. Lidocaine-prilocaine cream versus tetracaine gel for procedural pain in children. Ann Pharmacother 2002; 36: 687-692.
Taddio A, Chambers CT, Halperin SA, Ipp M, Lockett D, Rieder MJ, Shah V. Inadequate pain management during routine childhood immunizations: the nerve of it. Clin Ther 2009; 31 (Suppl 2): S152-S67.
Taeusch HW, Martinez AM, Partridge JC, Sniderman S, Armstrong-Wells J, Fuentes-Afflick E. Pain during Mogen or PlastiBell circumcision. J Perinatol 2002; 22: 214-218.
Talukdar A, Khandokar MR, Bandopadhyay SK, Detels R. Risk of HIV infection but not other sexually transmitted diseases is lower among homeless Muslim men in Kolkata. . AIDS 2007; 21: 2231-2235.
Tan PH, Cheng JT, Kuo CH, Tseng FJ, Chung HC, Wu JI, Hsiao HT, Yang LC. Preincisional subcutaneous infiltration of ketamine suppresses postoperative pain after circumcision surgery. Clin J Pain 2007; 23: 214-218.
Tapia-Aguirre V, Arillo-Santillan E, Allen B, Angeles-Llerenas A, Cruz-Valdez A, Lazcano-Ponce E. Associations among condom use, sexual behavior, and knowledge about HIV/AIDS. A study of 13,293 public school students. Arch Med Res 2004; 35: 334-343.
Taylor ML, Mainous AG, 3rd, Wells BJ. Prostate cancer and sexually transmitted diseases: a meta-analysis. Fam Med 2005; 37: 506-512.
Taylor PK, Rodin P. Herpes genitalis and circumcision. Brit J Ven Dis 1975; 51: 274-277.
Telzak EE, Chiasson MA, Bevier PJ, Stoneburner RL, Castro KG, Jaffe HW. HIV-1 seroconversion in patients with and without genital ulcer disease. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119: 1181-1186.
Temiz A, Akcora B. A new term: complete preputial agenesis. J Pediatr Surg 2007; 42: 1936-1937.
Templeton DJ, Jin F, Prestage GP, Donovan B, Imrie J, Kippax SC, Kaldor JM, Grulich AE. Circumcision status and risk of HIV seroconversion in the HIM cohort of homosexual men in Sydney. 4th International AIDS Society Conference 2007: WEAC103.
Templeton DJ, Mao L, Prestage GP, Jin F, Kaldor JM, Grulich AE. Self-report is a valid measure of circumcision status in homosexual men. Sex Transm Infect 2008; 84: 187-188.
Templeton DJ, Jin F, Mao L, Prestage GP, Donovan B, Imrie J, Kippax S, Kaldor JM, Grulich AE. Circumcision and risk of HIV infection in Australian homosexual men. AIDS 2009a; 23: 2347-2351.
Templeton DJ, Jin F, Prestage GP, Donovan B, Imrie JC, Kippax SC, Cunningham PH, Kaldor JM, Mindel A, Cunningham AL, Grulich AE. Circumcision and risk of sexually transmissible infections in a community-based cohort of HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia. J Infect Dis 2009b: 200: 1813-1819.
Templeton DJ, Millett GA, Grulich AE. Male circumcision to reduce the risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2010: 23: 45-52.
Thiruchelvam N, Cuckow PM. Effect of circumcision on urinary tract infection after successful antireflux surgery. BJU Int 2005; 95: 453-454.
Thompson HC, King LR, Knox E. Report of the ad hoc Task Force of Circumcision. Pediatrics 1975; 56: 610-611.
Thompson JH, Zmaj P, Cummings JM, Steinhardt GF. An approach for using full thickness skin grafts for complex penile surgeries in children. J Urol 2006; 175: 1869-1871.
Thomson R, Finau S, Finau E, Ahokovi L, Tameifuna S. Circumcision of Pacific boys: tradition at the cutting edge. Pac Health Dialog 2006; 13: 115-122.
To T, Agha M, Dick PT, Feldman W. Cohort study on circumcision of newborn boys and subsequent risk of urinary tract infection. Lancet 1998; 352: 1113-1116.
Tobian AA, Quinn TC. Herpes simplex virus type 2 and syphilis infections with HIV: an evolving synergy in transmission and prevention. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009; 4: 294-299.
Tobian AAR, Charvat B, Ssempijja V, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Makumbi F, Iga B, Laeyendecker O, Riedesel M, Oliver A, Chen MZ, Reynolds SJ, Wawer MJ, Gray RH, Quinn TC. Factors associated with the prevalence and incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among men in Rakai, Uganda. J Infect Dis 2009a; 199: 945-949.
Tobian AAR, Serwadda D, Quinn TC, Kigozi G, Gravitt PE, Laeyendecker O, Charvat B, Ssempijja V, Riedesel M, Oliver AE, Nowak RG, Moulton LH, Chen MZ, Reynolds SJ, Wawer MJ, Gray RH. Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis. N Engl J Med 2009b; 360: 1298-1309.
Tobian AA, Gray RH, Quinn TC. Male circumcision for the prevention of acquisition and transmission of sexually transmitted infections: the case for neonatal circumcision. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2010; 164: 78-84.
Todd J, Munguti K, Grosskurth H, Mngara J, Changalucha J, Mayaud P, Mosha F, Gavyole A, Mabey D, Hayes R. Risk factors for active syphilis and TPHA seroconversion in a rural African population. Sex Transm Infect 2001; 77: 37-45.
Todd J, Grosskurth H, Changalucha J, Obasi A, Mosha F, Balira R, Orroth K, Hugonnet S, Pujades M, Ross D, Gavyole A, Mabey D, Hayes R. Risk factors influencing HIV infection incidence in a rural African population: a nested case-control study. J Infect Dis 2006; 193: 458-466.
Toffler W, Sinclair A, White K. Dorsal penile nerve block during newborn circumcision: under-utilization of a proven technique? J Am Board Fam Pract 1990; 3: 171-174.
Tokgoz H, Polat F, Tan MO, Sipahi B, Sultan N, Bozkirli I. Preputial bacterial colonisation in preschool and primary school children. Int Urol Nephrol 2005; 37: 101-105.
Tsao JC, Evans S, Meldrum M, Altman T, Zeltzer LK. A review of CAM for procedural pain in infancy: Part I. Sucrose and non-nutritive sucking. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2008; 5: 371-381.
Tsen HF, Morgenstern H, Mack T, Peters RK. Risk factors for penile cancer: results of a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles County (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2001; 12: 267-277.
Tseng CJ, Pao CC, Lin JD, Soong YK, Hong JH, Hsueh S. Detection of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 mRNA in peripheral blood of advanced cervical cancer patients and its association with prognosis. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17: 1391-1396.
Turner AN, Morrison CS, Padian NS, Kaufman JS, Salata RA, Chipato T, Mmiro FA, Mugerwa RD, Behets FM, Miller WC. Men's circumcision status and women's risk of HIV acquisition in Zimbabwe and Uganda. AIDS 2007; 21: 1779-1789.
Turner AN, Morrison CS, Padian NS, Kaufman JS, Behets FM, Salata RA, Mmiro FA, Chipato T, Celentano DD, Rugpao S, Miller WC. Male circumcision and women's risk of Incident chlamydial, gonococcal, and trichomonal Infections. Sex Transm Dis 2008; 35: 689-695.
Turville SG, Cameron PU, Handley A, Lin G, Pohlmann S, Doms RW, Cunningham AL. Diversity of receptors binding HIV on dendritic cell subsets. Nat Immunol 2002; 3: 975-983.
Tzeng Y-S, Tang S-H, Meng E, Lin T-F, Sun G-H. Ischemic glans penis after circumcision. Asian J Androl 2004; 6: 161-163.
UNAIDS. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV-1/AIDS (UNAIDS) and World Health Organization (WHO). AIDS Epidemic Update. http://unaids.org 2007a.
UNAIDS. Safe, Voluntary, Informed Male Circumcision and Comprehensive HIV Prevention Programming: Guidance for decision-makers on human rights, ethical & legal considerations. 2007b: http://data.unaids.org/.
UNAIDS. Safe, Voluntary, Informed Male Circumcision and Comprehensive HIV Prevention Programming: Guidance for decision-makers on human rights, ethical & legal considerations. 2008: http://data.unaids.org/.
United Nations General Assembly. Report of the Secretary-General. Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS and Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS: midway to the Millennium Development Goals. 2008; Sixty-second session, Agenda item 44 (http://data.unaids.org/ 1-27.
Urassa M, Todd J, Boerma JT, Hayes R, Islingo R. Male circumcision and susceptibility to HIV infection among men in Tanzania. AIDS 1997; 11: 73-80.
Urisman A, Molinara RJ, Fischer N, Plummer SJ, Casey G, Klein EA, Malathi K, Magi-Galluzzi C, Tubbs RR, Ganem D, Silverman RH, DeRisi JL. Identification of a novel gammaretrovirus in prostate tumors of patients homozygous for R462Q RNASEL variant. PLoS Pathogens 2006; 2 (3): e25 (15 pp).
US Bureau of the Census. Recent HIV seroprevalanece levels by country: January 1998. 1998.
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV / AIDS surveillance report: Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and dependent areas, 2005. Volume 17. Revised edition. 2007. http://www.cdc.gov/.
Vaccarella S, Lazcano-Ponce E, Castro-Garduño JA, Cruz-Valdez A, Díaz V, Schiavon R, Hernández P, Kornegay JR, Hernández-Avila M, Franceschi S. Prevalence and determinants of human papillomavirus infection in men attending vasectomy clinics in Mexico. Int J Cancer 2006; 119: 1934-1939.
van Dijk M, de Boer JB, Koot H, Duivenvoorden HJ, Passchier J, Boowmeester N, Tibboel D. The association between physiological and behavioral pain measures in 0- to 3-year-old infants after major surgery. J Pain Symptom Mgt 2001; 22: 600-609.
Van Howe RS. A cost-utility analysis of neonatal circumcision. Med Decis Making 2004; 24: 584-601.
Van Howe RS. Incidence of meatal stenosis following neonatal circumcision in a primary care setting. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2006; 45: 49-55.
Van Howe RS. Genital ulcerative disease and sexually transmitted urethritis and circumcision: a meta-analysis. Int J STD AIDS 2007; 18: 799-809.
Van Wagoner NJ, Geisler WM, Sizemore JM, Jr., Whitley R, Hook EW, 3rd. Herpes simplex virus in African American heterosexual males: The roles of age and male circumcision. Sex Transm Dis 2009: [Epub ahead of print Nov 11].
Vaz RG, Gloyd S, Folgosa E, Kreiss J. Syphilis and HIV infection among prisoners in Maputo, Mozambique. Int J STD AIDS 1995; 6: 42-46.
Velazquez EF, Bock A, Soskin A, Codas R, Arbo M, Cubilla AL. Preputial variability and preferential association of long phimotic foreskins with penile cancer: an anatomic comparative study of types of foreskin in a general population and cancer patients. Am J Surg Pathol 2003; 27: 994-998.
Velazquez EF, Cubilla AL. Lichen sclerosus in 68 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: frequent atypias and correlation with special carcinoma variants suggests a precancerous role. Am J Surg Pathol 2003; 27: 1448-1453.
Vergidis PI, Falagas ME, Hamer DH. Meta-analytical studies on the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2009; 23: 295-308.
Vermooten V. Genitourinary neoplasms. In: United States Army Surgery in World War II. Office of the Surgeon General and Center of Military History, United States Army. pp. 167-192. 1987.
Vermund SH, Allen KL, Karim QA. HIV-prevention science at a crossroads: advances in reducing sexual risk. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009; 4: 266-273.
Viens AM. Value judgement, harm, and religious liberty. J Med Ethics 2004; 30: 241-247.
Villa LL, Lopez A. Human papillomavirus sequence in penile carcinomas in Brazil. Int J Cancer 1986; 37: 853-855.
Vittinghoff E, Douglas J, Judson F, McKirnan D, MacQueen K, Buchbinder SP. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 150: 306-311.
Wakabi W. Circumcision trials halted. Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7: 86-87.
Walboomers J, Meijer C. Do HPV-negative cervical carcinomas exist? (editorial) J Pathol 1997; 181: 253-254.
Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, Bosch FX, Kummer JA, Shah KV, Snijders PJ, Peto J, Meijer CJ, Munoz N. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer. J Pathol 1999; 189: 12-19.
Waldinger MD, Quinn P, Dilleen M, Mundayat R, Schweitzer DH, Boolell M. A multinational population survey of intravaginal ejaculation latency time. J Sex Med 2005; 2: 492-497.
Waldinger MD, McIntosh J, Schweitzer DH. A five-nation survey to assess the distribution of the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time among the general male population. J Sex Med 2009 (Jul 21).
Walker BD, Burton DR. Toward an AIDS vaccine. (Review). Science 2008; 320: 760-764.
Wallin L, Bajc M. Typical technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid distribution patterns in acute pyelonephritis. Acta Paediatr 1993; 82: 1061-1065.
Wamai RG, Weiss HA, Hankins C, Agot K, Karim QA, Shisana O, Bailey RC, Betukumesu B, Bongaarts J, Bowa K, Cash R, Cates W, Diallo MO, Dludlu S, Geffen N, Heywood M, Jackson H, Kayembe PK, Kapiga S, ., Kebaabetswe P, Kintaudi L, Klausner JD, Leclerc-Madlala S, Mabuza K, Makhubele MB, Miceni K, ., Morris BJ, de Moya A, Ncala J, Ntaganira I, Nyamucherera OF, Otolorin EO, Pape JW, Phiri M, Rees H, Ruiz M, Sanchez J, Sawires S, Seloilwe ES, Serwadda DM, Setswe G, Sewankambo N, Simelane D, Venter F, Wilson D, Woelk G, Zungu N, Halperin DT. Male circumcision is an efficacious, lasting and cost-effective strategy for combating HIV in high-prevalence AIDS epidemics: Time to move beyond debating the science. Future HIV Ther 2008; 2: 399-405.
Wan J. GOMCO circumcision clamp; an enduring and unexpected success. Urology 2002; 59: 790-794.
Wang ML, Macklin EA, Tracy E, Nadel H, Catlin EA. Updated parental viewpoints on male neonatal circumcision in the United States. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2010 ;49: 130-136.
Warner E, Strashin E. Benefits and risks of circumcision. Can Med Assoc 1981; 125: 967-976.
Warner L, Ghanem KG, Newman DR, Macaluso M, Sullivan PS, Erbelding EJ. Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection among heterosexual African American men attending Baltimore sexually transmitted disease clinics. J Infect Dis 2009; 199: 59-65.
Waskett JH. Hospital discharge data underestimate circumcision rates. Sex Transm Dis 2007; 34: 624.
Waskett JH, Morris BJ. Fine-touch pressure thresholds in the adult penis. (Critique of Sorrells ML, et al. BJU Int 2007;99:864-869). BJU Int 2007; 99: 1551-1552.
Waskett JH, Morris BJ. Re: ‘RS Van Howe, FM Hodges. The carcinogenicity of smegma: debunking a myth.' An example of myth and mythchief making? (Letter to the Editor). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2008; 22: 131.
Watson-Jones D, Weiss HA, Rusizoka M, Changalucha J, Baisley K, Mugeye K, Tanton C, Ross D, Everett D, Clayton T, Balira R, Knight L, Hambleton I, Le Goff J, Belec L, Hayes R. Effect of herpes simplex suppression on incidence of HIV among women in Tanzania. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 1560-1571.
Wawer MJ, Reynolds SJ, Serwadda D, Kigozi G, Kiwanuka N, Gray RH. Might male circumcision be more protective against HIV in the highly exposed? An immunological hypothesis. AIDS 2005; 19: 2181-2182.
Wawer MJ, Makumbi F, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Watya S, Nalugoda F, Buwembo D, Ssempijja V, Kiwanuka N, Moulton LH, Sewankambo NK, Reynolds SJ, Quinn TC, Opendi P, Iga B, Ridzon R, Laeyendecker O, Gray RH. Circumcision in HIV-infected men and its effect on HIV transmission to female partners in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2009; 374: 229-237.
Waxman HA. One hundred tenth Congress of the United States House of Representatives. Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. Male circumcision. HIV/AIDS Today 2008; 1 (18; May 16): 1-2.
Weaver BA, Feng Q, Holmes KK, Kiviat N, Lee SK, Meyer C, Stern M, Koutsky LA. Evaluation of genital sites and sampling techniques for detection of human papillomavirus DNA in men. J Infect Dis 2004; 189: 677-685.
Weaver C. Chlamydia epidemic hits teens. Sunday Telegraph 2007; Sep 23 (Sydney, Australia).
Weidner W. Words of wisdom. Re: Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial, and Re: Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomized trial. Eur Urol 2007; 52: 605-606.
Weiss G, Westbrook R, Sanders M. The distribution and density of Langerhans cells in the human prepuce: site of a diminished immune response. Isr J Med Sci 1993; 29: 42-43.
Weiss GN. Prophylactic neonatal surgery and infectious diseases. Pediat Infect Dis J 1997; 16: 727-734.
Weiss GN. Circumcision. Textbook of Tropical Surgery. Kamel, Lumley. 2004.
Weiss HA, Quigley MA, Hayes RJ. Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS 2000; 14: 2361-2370.
Weiss HA, Buve A, Robinson NJ, Van Dyck E, Kahindo M, Anagonou S, Musonda R, Zekeng L, Morison L, Carael M, Laga M, Hayes RJ. The epidemiology of HSV-2 infection and its association with HIV infection in four urban African populations. AIDS 2001; 15 (Suppl 4): S97-S108.
Weiss HA, Thomas SL, Munabi SK, Hayes RJ. Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect 2006; 82: 101-109.
Weiss HA. Male circumcision as a preventive measure against HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. (Review). Curr Opin Infect Dis 2007; 20: 66-72.
Weiss HA, Halperin D, Bailey RC, Hayes RJ, Schmid G, Hankins CA. Male circumcision for HIV prevention: from evidence to action? (Review). AIDS 2008a; 22: 567-574.
Weiss HA, Plummer ML, Changalucha J, Mshana G, Shigongo ZS, Todd J, Wight D, Hayes RJ, Ross DA. Circumcision among adolescent boys in rural northwestern Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health 2008b; 13: 1054-1061.
Weiss HA, Hankins CA, Dickson K. Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2009; 9: 669-677.
Weiss RA. Gulliver's travels in HIV land. Nature 2001; 410: 963-967.
Weiss RA. Special anniversary review: twenty-five years of human immunodeficiency virus research: successes and challenges. Clin Exp Immunol 2008; 152: 201-210.
Wellings K, Field J, Johnson AM, Wadsworth J. Sexual behaviour in Britain The National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles. 1994. London, Penguin.
Wellington N, Rieder M. Attitudes and practices regarding analgesia for newborn circumcision. Pediatrics 1993; 92: 541-543.
Weniger BG, Brown T. The march of AIDS through Asia [Editorial]. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 343-345.
Westercamp N, Bailey RC. Acceptability of male circumcision for prevention of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. AIDS Behav 2007; 11: 341-355.
Westreich D, Rennie S, Muula A. Comments on Brewer et al., "Male and female circumcision associated with prevalent HIV infection in virgins and adolescents in Kenya, Lesotho, and Tanzania". Ann Epidemiol 2007; 17: 926-927.
Wheeler R. Consent for non-therapeutic male circumcision: an exception to the rule? Arch Dis Child 2009; 93: 825-826.
White RG, Glynn JR, Orroth KK, Freeman EE, Bakker R, Weiss HA, Kumaranayake L, Habbema JD, Buvé A, Hayes RJ. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: who, what and when? AIDS 2008a; 22: 1841-1850.
White RG, Orroth KK, Glynn JR, Freeman EE, Bakker R, Habbema JD, Terris-Prestholt F, Kumaranayake L, Buvé A, Hayes RJ. Treating curable sexually transmitted infections to prevent HIV in Africa: still an effective control strategy? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008b; 47: 346-353.
Whitla W. A Dictionary of Treatment - Including Medical and Surgical Therapeutics. 1912. London, Bailli'ere, Tindall and Cox.
Whittington W, et al. HIV-1 in patients with genital lesions attending a North American STD clinic: Assessment of risk factors. Int Conf AIDS 1989; 5: 409.
WHO and UNAIDS announce recommendations from expert consultation on male circumcision for HIV prevention. 2007: http://www.who.int/hiv/mediacentre/news68/en/index.html.
WHO/UNAIDS/HPIEGO. Manual for male circumciison under local anaesthesia. World Health Organisation. 2006: http://www.who.int.hiv/topics/malecircumcision/en/.
Widschwendter A, Brunhuber T, Wiedemair A, Mueller-Holzner E, Marth C. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in breast cancer of patients with cervical cancer history. J Clin Virol 2004; 31: 292-297.
Wijesinha SS, Atkins BL, Dudley NE, Tam PK. Does circumcision alter the periurethral bacterial flora?. Pediat Surg Int 1998; 13: 146-148.
Willcourt R. Critique of: 'The effect of male circumcision on sexuality' by Kim KD, Pang M. BJU Int 2006;99:619-622. BJU Int 2007; 99: 1169-1170.
Williams BG, Lloyd-Smith JO, Gouws E, Hankins C, Getz WM, Hargrove J, de Zoysa I, Dye C. The potential impact of male circumcision on HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS Med 2006; 3: e262: 1032-1040.
Williams N, Kapila L. Complications of circumcision. Brit J Surg 1993; 80: 1231-1236.
Williamson ML, Williamson PS. Women's preferences for penile circumcision in sexual partners. J Sex Educ Ther 1988; 14: 8-12.
Willyard C. Circumcision strategy against HIV continues to prove divisive. Nat Med 2008; 14: 895.
Wilson D, de Beyer J. Male circumcision: Evidence and Implications. World Bank Global HIV/AIDS Program. 2008: http://go.worldbank.org/XWKGJDCZG0.
Wilson DP. Interpreting sexually transmissible infection prevention trials by adjusting for the magnitude of exposure. Clin Trials 2010: [Epub ahead of print Dec 2009].
Wilson RA. Circumcision and venereal disease. Can Med Ass J 1947; 56: 54-56.
Winer RL, Hughes JP, Feng Q, O'Reilly S, Kiviat NB, Holmes KK, Koutsky LA. Condom use and the risk of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 2645-2654.
Wiswell TE, Roscelli JD. Corroborative evidence for the decreased incidence of urinary tract infections in circumcised male infants. Pediatrics 1982; 69: 96-9.
Wiswell TE, Smith FR, Bass JW. Decreased incidence of urinary tract infections in circumcised male infants. Pediatrics 1985; 75: 901-903.
Wiswell TE, Enzenauer RW, Holton ME, Cornish JD, Hankins CT. Declining frequency of circumcision: implications for changes in the absolute incidence and male to female sex ratio of urinary tract infections in early infancy. Pediatrics 1987; 79: 338-341.
Wiswell TE. Do you favor routine neonatal circumcision? Yes. Postgrad Med 1988; 84: 98-104.
Wiswell TE, Miller GM, Gelston HM, Jr, Jones SK. Effects of circumcision status on periurethral bacterial flora during the first year of life. J Paediat 1988; 113: 442-446.
Wiswell TE, Geschke DW. Risks from circumcision during the first month of life compared with those for uncircumcised boys. Pediatrics 1989; 83: 1011-1015.
Wiswell TE. Circumcision an update. Curr Problems Pediat 1992; 10: 424-431.
Wiswell TE, Hachey WE. Urinary tract infections and the circumcision state: An update. Clin Pediat 1993; 32: 130-134.
Wiswell TE, Tencer HL, Welch CA, Chamberlain JL. Circumcision in children beyond the neonatal period. Pediatrics 1993; 92: 791-793.
Wiswell TE. Neonatal circumcision: a current appraisal. Focus Opin Pediat 1995; 1: 93-99.
Wiswell TE. Circumcision circumspection. N Engl J Med 1997a; 36: 1244-1245.
Wiswell TE. Neonatal circumcision: a current appraisal. http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/2754/ 1997b.
Wiswell TE. The prepuce, urinary tract infections, and the consequences. Pediatrics 2000; 105: 8602.
Wolbarst AL. Circumcision and penile cancer. Lancet 1932; i: 150-153.
Woodman PJ. Topical lidocaine-prilocaine versus lidocaine for neonatal circumcision: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 93: 775-779.
World Health Organization and UNAIDS. (2007) New data on male circumcision and HIV prevention: policy and programme implications. 2007. http://who.int/hiv/mediacentre/MCrecommendations_en.pdf.
WHO and UNAIDS. Male circumcision: global trends and determinants of prevalence, safety and acceptability. (42 pp; 191 refs). 2008a. Geneva, World Health Organization.
World Health Organization/UNAIDS. Male circumcision: Global trends and determinants of prevalance, safety and acceptability. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9789241596169_eng.pdf. 2008b. Geneva, World Health Organization.
World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1966-1997. Cancer Incidence in Five Countries 1997.
Wright J. How smegma serves the penis? Sexology 1970; 37: 50-53.
Wu Z, Chen Z, Phillips DM. Human genital epithelial cells capture cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and transmit the virus to CD4+ cells: implications for mechanisms of sexual transmission. J Infect Dis 2003; 188: 1473-1482.
Xin H. Mortality survey offers mixed messages. Science 2008; 321: 1155.
Xu B, Goldman H. Newborn circumcision in Victoria, Australia: reasons and parental attitudes. ANZ J Surg 2008; 78: 1019-1022.
Xu F, Markowitz L, Sternberg M, Aral S. Prevalence of circumcision in men in the United States: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002. . XVI International AIDS Conference 2006: Abstract no. TUPE0395.
Xu F, Markowitz LE, Sternberg MR, Aral SO. Prevalence of circumcision and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in men in the United States: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2004. Sex Transm Dis 2007; 34: 479-484.
Xu X, Patel DA, Dalton VK, Pearlman MD, Johnson TR. Can routine neonatal circumcision help prevent human immunodeficiency virus transmission in the United States? (Review). Am J Mens Health 2009; 3: 79-84.
Yahya-Malima KI, Matee MI, Evjen-Olsen B, Fylkesnes K. High potential of escalating HIV transmission in a low prevalence setting in rural Tanzania. BMC Public Health 2007; 7: 103 (10 pages).
Yang C, Liu X, Wei GH. Foreskin development in 10 421 Chinese boys aged 0-18 years. World J Pediatr 2009; 5: 312-315.
Yang SS, Tsai YC, Wu CC, Liu SP, Wang CC. Highly potent and moderately potent topical steroids are effective in treating phimosis: a prospective randomized study. J Urol 2005; 173: 1361-1363.
Yardley IE, Cosgrove C, Lambert AW. Paediatric preputial pathology: are we circumcising enough? Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2007; 89: 62-65.
Yawman D, Howard CR, Auinger P, Garfunkel LC, Allan M, Weitzman M. Pain relief for neonatal circumcision: a follow-up of residency training practices. Ambul Pediatr 2006; 6: 210-214.
Yegane RA, Kheirollahi AR, Salehi NA, Bashashati M, Khoshdel JA, Ahmadi M. Late complications of circumcision in Iran. Pediatr Surg Int 2006; 22: 442-445.
Zampieri N, Corroppolo M, Camoglio FS, Giacomello L, Ottolenghi A. Phimosis: stretching methods with or without application of topical steroids? J Pediatr 2005; 147: 705-706.
Zelkowitz R. Cancer. HPV casts a wider shadow. Science 2009; 323: 580-581.
Zenilman JM, Fresia A, Berger B, McCormack WM. Bacterial vaginosis is not associated with circumcision status of the current male partner. Sex Transm Infect 1999; 75: 347-348.
Zheng X, Tian C, Choi KH, Zhang J, Cheng H, Yang X, Li D, Lin J, Qu S, Sun X. Injecting drug use and HIV infection in southwest China. AIDS 1994; 8: 1141-1147.
Zhu J, Hladik F, Woodward A, Klock A, Peng T, Johnston C, Remington M, Magaret A, Koelle DM, Wald A, Corey L. Persistence of HIV-1 receptor-positive cells after HSV-2 reactivation is a potential mechanism for increased HIV-1 acquisition. Nat Med 2009; 15: 886-892.
Zorc JJ, Kiddoo DA, Shaw KN. Diagnosis and management of pediatric urinary tract infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 2005a; 18: 417-422.
Zorc JJ, Levine DA, Platt SL, Dayan PS, Macias CG, Krief W, Schor J, Bank D, Shaw KN, Kuppermann N. Clinical and demographic factors associated with urinary tract infection in young febrile infants. Pediatrics 2005b; 116: 644-648.
Zouhair A, Coucke PA, Jeanneret W, Douglas P, Do HP, Jichlinski P, Mirimanoff RO, Ozsahin M. Radiation therapy alone or combined surgery and radiation therapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the penis? Eur J Cancer 2001; 37: 198-203.
Zur Hausen H. Herpes simplex virus in human genital cancer. Int Rev Exp Pathol 1983; 25: 307-326.