Circumcision References

Page 1 of 3

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I


Adami H-O, Trichopoulos D. Cervical cancer and the elusive male factor. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 1160-1161.

Adami HO, Kuper H, Andersson SO, Bergström R, Dillner J. Prostate cancer risk and serologic evidence of human papilloma virus infection: a population-based case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12: 872-875.

Adams J, Trinitapoli J, Poulin M. Regarding "male and female circumcision associated with prevalent HIV infection in virgins and adolescents in Kenya, Lesotho, and Tanzania". Ann Epidemiol 2007; 17: 923-925.

Addanki KC, Pace DG, Bagasra O. A practice for all seasons: male circumcision and the prevention of HIV transmission. J Infect Dev Ctries 2008; 2: 328-334.

Adelman WP, Joffe A. Controversies in male adolescent health: varicocele, circumcision, and testicular self-examination. Curr Opin Pediatr 2004; 16: 363-367.

Adler R, Ottaway S, Gould S. Circumcision: we have heard from the experts; now let's hear from the parents. Pediatrics 2001; 107:

Afsari M, Beasley SW, Maoate K, Heckert K. Attitudes of Pacific parents to circumcision of boys. Pac Health Dialog 2002; 9: 29-33.

Agartan CA, Kaya DA, Ozturk CE, Gulcan A. Is aerobic preputial flora age dependent? Jpn J Infect Dis 2005; 58: 276-278.

Agarwal SS, Sehgal A, Sardana S, Kumar A, Luthra UK. Role of male behaviour in cervical carcinogenesis among women with one lifetime sexual partner. Cancer 1993; 72: 1666-1669.

Agha K, Alderson S, Samraj S, Cottam A, Merry C, Lee V, Patel R. Pearly penile papules regress in older patients and with circumcision. Int J STD AIDS 2009; 20: 768-770.

Agius PA, Dyson S, Pitts MK, Mitchell A, Smith AM. Two steps forward and one step back? Australian secondary students' sexual health knowledge and behaviors 1992-2002. J Adolesc Health 2006; 38: 247-252.

Agot KE, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JL, Weiss NS. Risk of HIV-1 in Kenya. A comparison of circumcised and uncircumcised men. Epidemiology 2004; 15: 157-163.

Agot KE, Kiarie JN, Nguyen HQ, Odhiambo JO, Onyango TM, Weiss NS. Male circumcision in Siaya and Bondo Districts, Kenya: prospective cohort study to assess behavioral disinhibition following circumcision. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007; 44: 66-70.

Ahaghotu C, Okafor H, Igiehon E, Gray E. Psychosocial factors influence parental decision for circumcision in pediatric males of African American decent. J Natl Med Assoc. 2009; 101: 325-330.

Ahmed A. Childhood circumcision: a planned approach. Trop Doct 2007; 37: 239-241.

Al-Mutairi N, Joshi A, Nour-Eldin O, Sharma AK, El-Adawy I, Rijhwani M. Clinical patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, associated sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual practices in the Farwaniya region of Kuwait. Int J Dermatol 2007; 46: 594-599.

al-Samarrai AY, Mofti AB, Crankson SJ, Jawad A, Haque K, al-Meshari A. A review of a Plastibell device in neonatal circumcision in 2,000 instances. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1988; 167: 341-343.

Alanis MC, Lucidi RS. Neonatal circumcision: A review of the world's oldest and most controversial operation. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2004; 59: 379-395.

Aldemir M, Cakan M, Burgu B. Circumcision with a new disposable clamp: Is it really easier and more reliable? Int Urol Nephrol 2008; 40: 377-381.

Alderson M. Occupational Cancer. 1986. London, Butterworths.

Altman L. Sex diseases still rising; Chlamydia is leader.   Retrieved Nov 14, 2007.

Amarante MK, Watanabe MA. The possible involvement of virus in breast cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2009; 135: 329-337.

American Academy of Pediatrics. Task Force on Circumcision. Report of the Task Force on Circumcision. Pediatrics 1989; 84: 388-391.

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Quality Improvement, Subcommittee on Urinat Tract Infections Practice parameter: the diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of the initial urinary tract infection in febrile infants and young children. Pediatrics 1999; 103: 843-852.

American Cancer Society. Cancer statistics. are the key statistics for penile cancer. 2005a.

American Academy of Pediatrics. AAP publications retired and reaffirmed. Pediatrics 2005b; 116: 796.

American Urological Association. Circumcision. 2007a.

American Urological Association. Circumcision. 2007a.

American Cancer Society. Estimated New Cancer Cases and Deaths by Sex for All Sites, US, 2007 - Cancer Facts & Figures 2007. 2007b;

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics. Informed consent, parental permission, and assent in pediatric practice. Pediatrics 1995; 95 (part 1): 314-317.

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Quality Improvement, Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infections Practice parameter: the diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of the initial urinary tract infection in febrile infants and young children. Pediatrics 1999; 103: 843-852.

Anderson GG, Palermo JJ, Schilling JD, Roth R, Heuser J, Hultgren SJ. Intracellular bacterial biofilm-like pods in urinary tract infections. Science 2003; 301: 105-107.

Anderson J, Wilson D, Templeton DJ, Grulich A, Carter R, Kaldor J. Cost-effectiveness of adult circumcision in a resource-rich setting for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men. J Infect Dis 2009:200: 1803-1812.

Anderson JE, Wilson R, Doll L, Jones S, Barker P. Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among US adults: data from a national survey. Fam Plann Perspect 1999; 31: 24-28.

Androutsos G. [Could phimosis have been the cause of sexual difficulties and delayed fertility of Louis XVI (1754-1793)?] (in French). Prog Urol 2002; 12: 132-137.

Angulo JC, García-Díez M. Male genital representation in Paleolithic art: erection and circumcision before history. Urology 2009; 74: 10-14.

Anon. Newer approaches to HIV prevention. Lancet 2007; 369: 615.

Anonymous. Trial and failure. Nature 2007a; 446: 1.

Anonymous. HIV vaccine failure prompts Merck to halt trial. Nature 2007b; 449: 390.

Anonymous. Alarming chlamydia rates found in Australian teenagers. Medical Search 2007c; (Sep 26; Sydney, Australia).

Anonymous. Trials halted after gel found to increase HIV risk. Nature 2007d; 445: 577.

Anonymous. Circumcision is cost-effective. Nat Rev Microbiol 2008a; 6: 718.

Anonymous. A chorus of disapproval. Nature 2008b; 454.

Apt A. Circumcision and prostatic cancer. Acta Med Scand 1965; 178: 493-504.

Aral SO, Blanchard J, Lipshutz J. STD/HIV prevention intervention: efficacy, effectiveness and population impact. Sex Transm Infect 2008; 84 (Suppl 2): ii1-ii3.

Aridogan IA, Ilkit M, Izol V, Ates A, Demirhindi H. Glans penis and prepuce colonisation of yeast fungi in a paediatric population: pre- and postcircumcision results. Mycoses 2009; 52: 49-52.

Asin J. Chancroid; a report of 1,402 cases. Am J Syph Gonorrhea Vener Dis 1952; 36: 483-487.

Atikeler MK, Geçit I, Yüzgeç V, Yalçin O. Complications of circumcision performed within and outside the hospital. Int Urol Nephrol 2005; 37: 97-99.

Atkin G, Butler C, Broadhurst J, Khan A, Nataraj R, Madden N, Haddad M, Clarke S. Ritual circumcision: no longer a problem for health services in the British Isles. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2009; 91: in press.

Austin PF. Is neonatal circumcision clinically beneficial? Argument in favor. Nat Clin Pract Urol 2009; 6: 16-17.

Australia's Health. The Third Biennial Report of the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australian Government Printing Service, Canberra.  1992: 330.

Australian Paediatrics Association. Circumcision as a hygiene measure. Med J Aust 1971; 2: 175.

Australian College of Paediatrics. Policy Statement on Neonatal Male Circumcision.  1995.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australian Government. Cancer in Australia to 2000. and 2004a.

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Medicare Benefits Schedule.  2004a.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australian Government. 2004b. Cancer in Australia to 2000. and 2004.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 2007. Cervical screening in Australia 2004-2005. cancer series no. 38. Cat. no. CAN 33. Canberra: AIHW.  2007.

Auvert B, Ballard R, Campbell C, Caraël M, Carton M, Fehler G, Gouws E, MacPhail C, Taljaard D, Van Dam J, Williams B. HIV infection among youth in a South African mining town is associated with herpes simplex virus-2 seropositivity and sexual behaviour. AIDS 2001; 15: 885-898.

Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagarde E, Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Sitta R, Puren A. Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male Circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: The ANRS 1265 Trial. PLoS Med 2005; 2 (e298): 1112-1122.

Auvert B, Kahn JG, Korenromp E, Lloyd-Smith J, Helleringer S, Taljaard D, Sitta R, Hargrove J, Williams B, Marseille E. Cost of the roll-out of male circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa. 7th International AIDS Society Conference 2007: WEAC105.

Auvert B, Marseille E, Korenromp EL, Lloyd-Smith J, Sitta R, Taljaard D, Pretorius C, Williams B, Kahn JG. Estimating the resources needed and savings anticipated from roll-out of adult male circumcision in Sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS ONE 2008; 3: e2679 (8 pages).

Auvert B, Lissouba P, Cutler E, Zarca K, Puren A, Taljaard D. Association of oncogenic and nononcogenic human papillomavirus with HIV incidence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 53: 111-116.

Auvert B, Lissouba P, Sobngwi-Tambekou J. Reply to Van Howe. J Infect Dis 2009b; 200: 833.

Auvert B, Lissouba P, Taljaard D, Geffen N, Fiamma A, Heywood M. Key facts on male circumcision. S Afr Med J 2009c; 99: 150-151.

Auvert B, Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Cutler E, Nieuwoudt M, Lissouba P, Puren A, Taljaard D. Effect of male circumcision on the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in young men: results of a randomized controlled trial conducted in orange farm, South Africa. J Infect Dis 2009d; 199: 14-19.

Aydur E, Gungor S, Ceyhan ST, Taiimaz L, Baser I. Effects of childhood circumcision age on adult male sexual functions. Int J Impot Res 2007; 19: 424-431.

Aynaud O, Ionesco M, Barrasso R. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia – specific clinical features correlate with histologic and virologic findings. Cancer 1994; 74: 1762-1767.

Aynaud O, Piron D, Casanova J-M. Incidence of preputial lichen sclerosis in adults: Histologic study of circumcision specimens. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999; 41: 923-926.


Bachur R, Caputo GL. Bacteremia and meningitis among infants with urinary tract infections. Pediatr Emerg Care 1995; 11: 280-284.

Badger J. The great circumcision report part 2. Australian Forum 1989a; 2 (12): 4-13.

Badger J. Circumcision. What you think. Australian Forum 1989b; 2 (11): 10-29.

Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Rakwar JP, Mandaliya K, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. Female-to-male infectivity of HIV-1 among circumcised and uncircumcised Kenyan men. J Infect Dis 2005; 191: 546-553.

Baeten JM, Celum C, Coates TJ. Male circumcision and HIV risks and benefits for women. Lancet 2009a; 374: 182-184.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Inambo M, John-Stewart G, Kapiga S, Manongi R, Ronald A, Vwakila B, Celum C. Male circumcision and risk of male-to-female HIV-1 transmission: A multinational prospective study. 5th International AIDS Society Conference, Cape Town, South Africa 2009b: LBPEC06.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Kapiga SH, Ronald A, John-Stewart G, Inambao M, Manongi R, Vwalika B, Celum C. Male circumcision and risk of male-to-female HIV-1 transmission: a multinational prospective study in African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples. AIDS 2010: [Epub ahead of print Dec 29, 2009]

Bailey RC, Neema S, Othieno R. Sexual behaviors and other HIV risk factors in circumcised and uncircumcised men in Uganda. J Acquired Immune Defic Syndrome 1999; 22: 294-301.

Bailey RC. Male circumcision as an effective HIV prevention strategy: Current evidence. 8th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Chicago 2001; S22: mode =send.

Bailey RC, Plummer FA, Moses S. Male circumcision and HIV prevention: current knowledge and future research directions. Lancet Infect Dis 2001; 1: 223-231.

Bailey RC, Muga R, Poulussen R, Abicht H. The acceptability of male circumcision to reduce HIV infections in Nyanza Province, Kenya. AIDS Care 2002; 14: 27-40.

Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, Agot K, Maclean I, Krieger JN, Williams CF, Campbell RT, Ndinya-Achola JO. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007; 369: 643-656.

Bailey RC, Egesah O, Rosenberg S. Male circumcision for HIV prevention: a prospective study of complications in clinical and traditional settings in Bungoma, Kenya. Bull World Health Organ 2008a; 86: 669-677.

Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, Agot K, Maclean I, Krieger JN, Williams CF, Ndinya-Achola JO. The protective effect of male circumcision is sustained for at least 42 months: results from the Kisumu, Kenya Trial. XVII International AIDS Conference, Mexico City, Year: THAC05.

Bailey RC, Mehta SD. Circumcision's place in the vicious cycle involving herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV. J Infect Dis 2009; 199: 923-925.

Bailis SA. More on procedures in the evaluation of the febrile pediatric patient. Pediatr Ann 1997; 26: 278.

Bailis SA. Circumcision – The debate goes on. Pediatrics 2000; 105: 682.

Balat A, Karakök M, Güler E, Uçaner N, Kibar Y. Local defense systems in the prepuce. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2008; 42: 63-65.

Baldwin SB, Wallace DR, Papenfuss MR, Abrahamsen M, Vaught LC, Giuliano AR. Condom use and other factors affecting penile human papillomavirus detection in men attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Sex Transm Dis 2004; 31: 601-607.

Balis V, Sourvinos G, Soulitzis N, Giannikaki E, Sofras F, Spandidos DA. Prevalence of BK virus and human papillomavirus in human prostate cancer. Int J Biol Markers 2007; 22: 245-251.

Barile MF, Blumberg JM, Kraul CW, Yaguchi R. Penile lesions among U.S. Armed Forces personnel in Japan. The prevalence of herpes simplex and the role of pleuropneumonia-like organisms. Arch Dermatol 1962; 86: 273-281.

Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Maldonado JL, Pow-sang J, Giuliano AR. Incidence trends in primary malignant penile cancer. Urol Oncol 2007; 25: 361-367.

Barouch DH. Challenges in the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Nature 2008; 455: 613-619.

Barrasso R, De Brux J, Croissant O, Orth G. High prevalence of papillomavirus associated penile intraepithelial neoplasia in sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. N Engl J Med 1987; 317: 916-923.

Baskin LS, Canning DA, Snyder HMI, Duckett JW. Surgical repair of urethral circumcision injuries. J Urol 1997; 158: 2269-2271.

Basset I, Donovan B, Bodsworth NJ, Field PR, Ho DW, Jeansson S, Cunningham AL. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of heterosexual men attending a sexual health centre. Med J Aust 1994; 160: 697-700.

Bassler D, Montori VM, Briel M, Glasziou P, Guyatt G. Early stopping of randomized clinical trials for overt efficacy is problematic. J Clin Epidemiol 2008; 61: 241-246.

Bazmamoun H, Ghorbanpour M, Mousavi-Bahar SH. Lubrication of circumcision site for prevention of meatal stenosis in children younger than 2 years old. Urol J 2008; 5: 233-236.

BBC2 Television. The Valley of Life or Death. Broadcast in UK, 2000(issue).

Beasley S, Darlow B, Craig J, Mulcahy D, Smith G. Royal Australasian College of Physicians. Policy Statement on Circumcision.  2004:

Beckman LJ, Harvey SM, Tiersky LA. Attitudes about condoms and condom use among college students. J Am Coll Hlth 1996; 44: 243-249.

Belman AB. Vesicoureteral reflux. Pediatr Clin North Am 1997; 44: 1171-1190.

Ben Chaim J, Livne PM, Binyamini J, Hardak B, Ben-Meir D, Mor Y. Complications of circumcision in Israel: a one year multicenter survey. Isr Med Assoc J 2005; 7: 368-370.

Ben KL, Xu JC, Lu L, Yao JP, Min XD, Li WY, Tao J, Wang J, Li JJ, Cao XM. [Promoting male circumcision in China for preventing HIV infection and improving reproductive health] (Article in Chinese). Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2008; 14: 291-297.

Ben KL, Xu JC, Lu L, Lü NQ, Cheng Y, Tao J, Liu DK, Min XD, Cao XM, Li PS. [Male circumcision is an effective "surgical vaccine" for HIV prevention and reproductive health](in Chinese). Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2009; 15: 395-402.

Benador D, Benador N, Slosman D, Mermillod B, Girardin E. Are younger children at highest risk of renal sequelae after pyelonephritis? Lancet 1997; 349: 17-19.

Benatar M, Banatar D. Between prophylaxis and child abuse: the ethics of neonatal male circumcision. Am J Bioeth 2003; 3: 35-48.

Beniamin F, Castagnetti M, Rigamonti W. Surgical management of penile amputation in children. J Pediatr Surg 2008; 43: 1939-1943.

Bensman A, Ulinski T. Pharmacotherapy of lower urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis in children. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2009; 10: 2075-2080.

Bergqvist LL, Katz-Salamon M, Hertegård S, Anand KJ, Lagercrantz H. Mode of delivery modulates physiological and behavioral responses to neonatal pain. J Perinatol 2009; 29: 44-50.

Binagwaho A, Pegurri E, Muita J, Bertozzi S. Male circumcision at different ages in Rwanda: A cost-effectiveness study. PLoS Med 7: e1000211.

Bleustein CB, Fogarty JD, Eckholdt H, Arezzo JC, Melman A. Effect of neonatal circumcision on penile neurological sensation. Urology 2005; 65: 773-777.

Bochove-Overgaauw DM, Gelders W, De Vylder AM. Routine biopsies in pediatric circumcision: (Non) sense? J Pediatr Urol 2009; 5: 178-180.

Bocquet N, Chappuy H, Lortat-Jacob S, Chéron G. Bleeding complications after ritual circumcision: about six children. Eur J Pediatr 2009 (Jul 9. [Epub ahead of print]).

Bode CO, Ikhisemojie S, Ademuyiwa AO. Penile injuries from proximal migration of the plastibell circumcision ring. J Pediatr Urol 2009 (Jun 29. [Epub ahead of print] ).

Boggiano C, Littman DR. HIV's vagina travelogue. Immunity 2007; 26: 145-147.

Boily MC, Desai K, Masse B, Gumel A. Incremental role of male circumcision on a generalised HIV epidemic through its protective effect against other sexually transmitted infections: from efficacy to effectiveness to population-level impact. Sex Transm Infect 2008; 84 (Suppl 2): i28-34.

Boily MC, Baggaley RF, Wang L, Masse B, White RG, Hayes RJ, Alary M. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 2009; 9: 118-129.

Bollinger LA, Stover J, Musuka G, Fidzani B, Moeti T, Busang L. The cost and impact of male circumcision on HIV/AIDS in Botswana. J Int AIDS Soc 2009; 12: 7.

Bongaarts J, Peining P, Way P, Conont F. The relationship between male circumcision and HIV infection in African populations. AIDS 1989; 3: 373-377.

Boon ME, Susanti I, Tasche MJ, Kok LP. Human papillomavirus (HPV) associated male and female genital carcinomas in a Hindu population. The male as a vector and victim. Cancer 1989; 64: 550-565.

Bosch FX, Albero G, Castellsagué X. Male circumcision, human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: from evidence to intervention. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 2009; 35: 5-7.

Botros BA, Aliyev QM, Saad MD, Michael AA, Sanchez JL, Carr JK, Earhart KC. HIV infection and associated risk factors among long-distance truck drivers travelling through Azerbaijan. Int J STD AIDS 2009; 20: 477-482.

Boulos MN, Russell C, Smith M. Web GIS in practice II: interactive SVG maps of diagnoses of sexually transmitted diseases by Primary Care Trust in London, 1997 - 2003. Int J Health Geogr 2005; 4: 4.

Brady MT. Newborn circumcision: routine or not routine, that is the question. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2010; 164: 94-96.

Brankin AE, Tobian AA, Laeyendecker O, Suntoke TR, Kizza A, Mpoza B, Kigozi G, Nalugoda F, Iga B, Chen MZ, Gray RH, Wawer MJ, Quinn TC, Reynolds SJ. Aetiology of genital ulcer disease in female partners of male participants in a circumcision trial in Uganda. Int J STD AIDS 2009; 20: 650-651.

Brewer DD, Potterat JJ, Roberts JM, Jr., Brody S. Male and female circumcision associated with prevalent HIV infection in virgins and adolescents in Kenya, Lesotho, and Tanzania. Ann Epidemiol 2007; 17: 217-226.

Brisman M, Ljang BML, Otterbom I, Larsson LE, Andreasson SE. Methemoglobin formation after the use of EMLA cream in term neonates. Acta Pediatr 1998; 87: 1191-1194.

Brisson M, Van de Velde N, Boily MC. Economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccination in developed countries. Public Health Genomics 2009; 12: 343-351.

British Medical Association. Consent, rights and choices in health care for children and young people. Chapter 1. 2001. London, BMJ Books.

British Medical Association. The law and ethics of male circumcision – guidance for doctors.  2003.

British Medical Association. The law and ethics of male circumcision: guidance for doctors. J Med Ethics 2004; 30: 259-263.

British Medical Association. The law and ethics of male circumcision. Guidance for doctors. 2006. BMA.

Brito MO, Caso LM, Balbuena H, Bailey RC. Acceptability of male circumcision for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic. PLoS One 2009; 4 (6 pages): e7687.

Broadman L, Hannallah R, Belman B, Elder P, Ruttiman U, Epstein B. Post-circumcision analgesia; a prospective evaluation of subcutaneous ring block of the penis. Anesthesiology 1987; 67: 399-402.

Bromage SJ, Crump A, Pearce I. Phimosis as a presenting feature of diabetes. BJU Int 2007; 101: 338-340.

Brown JE, Micheni KD, Grant EM, Mwenda JM, Muthiri FM, Grant AR. Varieties of male circumcision: a study from Kenya. Sex Transm Dis 2001; 28: 608-612.

Bryk F. Circumcision in Man and Woman - Its History, Psychology and Ethnology. (Translation by Berger F of "Die Beschneidung bei Mann und Weib"), pp. 174-177. 1934. New York, American Ethnological Press. (Facsimile reprint, AMS Press, New York, 1974).

Buchbinder SP, Vittinghoff E, Heagerty PJ, Celum CL, Seage GR, 3rd., Judson FN, McKirnan D, Mayer KH, Koblin BA. Sexual risk, nitrite inhalant use, and lack of circumcision associated with HIV seroconversion in men who have sex with men in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 39: 82-89.

Buchbinder SP, Mehrotra DV, Duerr A, Fitzgerald DW, Mogg R, Li D, Gilbert PB, Lama JR, Marmor M, Del Rio C, McElrath MJ, Casimiro DR, Gottesdiener KM, Chodakewitz JA, Corey L, Robertson MN. Efficacy assessment of a cell-mediated immunity HIV-1 vaccine (the Step Study): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, test-of-concept trial. Lancet. 2008; 372: 1881-1893.

Burger R, Guthrie T. Why circumcision? Pediatrics 1974; 54: 362-364.

Burrell C. A low-tech way to combat HIV/AIDS. Harvard Public Health Review 2008; Spring/Summer: 24-25.

Busby JE, Pettaway CA. What's new in the management of penile cancer? Curr Opin Urol 2005; 15: 350-357.

Butler-O'Hara M, LeMoine C, Guillet R. Analgesia for neonatal circumcision: A randomized controlled trial of EMLA cream versus dorsal penile nerve block. Pediatrics 1998; 101:

Buve A, Weiss HA, Laga M, Van Dyck E, Musonda R, Zekeng L, Kahindo M, Anagonou S, Morison L, Robinson NJ, Hayes RJ. The epidemiology of gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection and syphilis in four African cities. AIDS 2001; 15 (Suppl 4): S79-S88.

Buvé A, Caraël M, Hayes RJ, Auvert B, Ferry B, Robinson NJ, Anagonou S, Kanhonou L, Laourou M, Abega S, Akam E, Zekeng L, Chege J, Kahindo M, Rutenberg N, Kaona F, Musonda R, Sukwa T, Morison L, Weiss HA, Laga M. The multicentre study on factors determining the differential spread of HIV in four African cities: summary and conclusions. AIDS 2001; 15 (Suppl 4): S127-S131.

Buyukkocak U, Caglayan F, Caglayan O, Basar M, Cakmak M, Batislam E, Ulusoy S. Anaesthesia and the acute phase protein response in children undergoing circumcision. Mediators Inflamm 2005; 2005: 312-315.

Bwayo J, Plummer F, Omari M, Mutere A, Moses S, Ndinya-Achola J, Velentgas P, Kreiss J. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in long-distance truck drivers in east Africa. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154: 1391-1396.

Byakika-Tusiime J. Circumcision and HIV infection: assessment of causality. AIDS Behav 2008; 12: 835-841.


Caballero-Hoyos R, Villasenor-Sierra A. [Socioeconomic strata as a predictor factor for constant condom use among adolescents] (Spanish). Rev Saude Publica 2001; 35: 531-538.

Caldwell JC, Caldwell P. The African AIDS epidemic. Sci Am 1996; 274: 40-46.

Calnan M, Douglas JWB, Goldstein H. Tonsillectomy and circumcision: comparison of two cohorts. Int J Epidemiol 1978; 7: 79.

Cameron BE, Simonsen JN, D'Costa LJ, Ronald AR, Maitha GM, Gakinya MN, Cheang M, Dinya-Achola JO, Piot P, Brunham RC, Plummer FA. Female to male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: risk factors for seroconversion in men. Lancet 1989; ii: 403-407.

Canada PHAo. Public Health Agency of Canada. What Mother's say: The Canadian Experiences Survey.  2009; (issue).

Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics. 2005.

Carbajal R, Chauvet X, Couderc S, Oliver-Martin M. Randomized trial of analgesic effects of sucrose, glucose, and pacifiers in term neonates. Brit Med J 1999; 319: 1393-1397.

Carver BS, Mata JA, Venable DD, Eastham JA. Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: a retrospective review of forty-five patients in northwest Louisiana. South Med J 2002; 95.

Cascio S, Colhoun E, Puri P. Bacterial colonization of the prepuce in boys with vesicoureteral reflux who receive antibiotic prophylaxis. J Pediatr 2001; 139: 160-162.

Cason DL, Carter BS, Bhatia J. Can circumcision prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in hospitalized infants? Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2000; 39: 699-703.

Cassell MM, Halperin DT, Shelton JD, Stanton D. Risk compensation: the Achilles' heel of innovations in HIV prevention? Brit Med J 2006; 332: 605-607.

Castellsague X, Bosch FX, Munoz N, Meijer CJLM, Shah KV, de Sanjose S, Eluf-Neto J, Ngelangel CA, Chichareon S, Smith JS, Herrero R, Franceschi S. Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 1105-1112.

Castellsague X, Peeling RW, Franceschi S, de Sanjose S, Smith JS, Albero G, Diaz M, Herrero R, Munoz N, Bosch FX. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in female partners of circumcised and uncircumcised adult men. Am J Epidemiol 2005; 162: 907-916.

Castellsague X, Albero G, Cleries R, Bosch FX. HPV and circumcision: A biased, inaccurate and misleading meta-analysis. J Infect 2007; 55: 91-93.

Cates W, Feldblum P. HIV prevention research: the ecstasy and the agony. Lancet 2008; 372: 1932-1933.

Cathcart P, Nuttall M, van der Meulen J, Emberton M, Kenny SE. Trends in paediatric circumcision and its complications in England between 1997 and 2003. Br J Surg 2006; 93: 885-890.

Celum CL, Buchbinder SP, Donnell D, Douglas JM, Jr., Mayer K, Koblin B, Marmor M, Bozeman S, Grant RM, Flores J, Sheppard HW. Early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the HIV Network for Prevention Trials Vaccine Preparedness Cohort: risk behaviors, symptoms, and early plasma and genital tract virus load. J Infect Dis 2001; 183: 23-35.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program–Reducing Mortality Through Screening.  2006:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Science Facts. Male Circumcision and Risk for HIV Transmission and Other Health Conditions: Implications for the United States.  2008a (

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Reports. 2008b.

Cepeda MS, Carr DB, Lau J, Alvarez H. Music for pain relief. (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006: art. no. CD004843.

Chalmers RJ, Burton PA, Bennett RF, Goring CC, Smith PJ. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. A common and distinctive cause of phimosis in boys. Arch Dermatol 1984; 120: 1025-1027.

Chan DJ. Fatal attraction: sex, sexually transmitted infections and HIV-1. Int J STD AIDS 2006; 17: 643-651.

Check E. Trio of studies makes headway in HIV battle. Nature 2007a; 446: 12.

Check E. Scientists rethink approach to HIV gels. Nature 2007b; 446: 12.

Check Hayden E. HIV: The next shot. Nature 2008; 454: 565-569.

Chen AC, Keleher A, Kedda MA, Spurdle AB, McMillan NA, Antonsson A. Human papillomavirus DNA detected in peripheral blood samples from healthy Australian male blood donors. J Med Virol 2009; 81: 1792-1796.

Cheng D, Hurt L, Horon IL. Neonatal circumcision in Maryland: a comparison of hospital discharge and maternal postpartum survey data. J Pediatr Urol 2008; 4: 448-451.

Cheng Y, Peng YF, Liu YD, Tian L, Lü NQ, Su XJ, Yan ZJ, Hu JS, Lee R, Kim HH, Sokal DC, Li PS. [A recommendable standard protocol of adult male circumcision with the Chinese Shang Ring: outcomes of 328 cases in China] [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2009; 15: 584-592.

Cheng YW, Wong SN. Diagnosing symptomatic urinary tract infections in infants by catheter urine culture. J Paediatr Child Health 2005; 41: 437-440.

Cherpes TL, Meyne LA, Krohn MA, Hiller SL. Risk factors for infection with herpes simplex virus type 2: Role of smoking, douching, uncircumcised males, and vaginal flora. Sex Transm Dis 2003; 30: 405-410.

Cherpes TL, Hillier SL, Meyn LA, Busch JL, Krohn MA. A delicate balance: risk factors for acquisition of bacterial vaginosis include sexual activity, absence of hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli, black race, and positive herpes simplex virus type 2 serology. Sex Transm Dis 2008; 35: 78-83.

Chersich MF, Rees HV. Vulnerability of women in southern Africa to infection with HIV: biological determinants and priority health sector interventions. AIDS 2008; 22 (Suppl 4): S27-S40.

Choi YH, Jit M, Gay N, Cox A, Garnett GP, Edmunds WJ. Transmission dynamic modelling of the impact of human papillomavirus vaccination in the United Kingdom. Vaccine 2009: [Epub ahead of print Nov 9].

Chon CH, Lai FC, Shortliffe LM. Pediatric urinary tract infections. Pediatr Clin North Am 2001; 48: 1441-1459.

Christakis DA, Harvey E, Zerr DM, Feudtner C, Wright JA, Connell FA. A trade-off analysis of routine newborn circumcision. Pediatrics 2000; 105: 246-249.

Cilento BGJ, Holmes NM, Canning DA. Plastibell complications revisited. Clin Pediatr 1999; 38: 239-242.

Clark PA, Eisenman J, Szapor S. Mandatory neonatal male circumcision in Sub-Saharan Africa: Medical and ethical analysis. Med Sci Monit 2007; 12: RA205-RA213.

Clemmensen OJ, Krogh J, Petri M. The histologic spectrum of prepuces from patients with phimosis. Am J Dermatopathol 1988; 10: 104-108.

Coates TJ, Richter L, Caceres C. Behavioural strategies to reduce HIV transmission: how to make them work better. Lancet 2008; 372: 669-684.

Cohen J. HIV/AIDS. Prevention cocktails: combining tools to Stop HIV's spread. Science 2005a; 309: 1002-1005.

Cohen J. Male circumcision thwarts HIV infection. Science 2005b; 309: 860.

Cohen J. Did Merck’s failed HIV vaccine cause harm? Science 2007a; 318: 1048-1049.

Cohen J. New estimates scale back scope of HIV/AIDS epidemic. Science 2007b; 318: 1360-1361.

Cohen J. India slashes estimate of HIV-infected people. Science 2007c; 317: 179-180.

Cohen J. Promising AIDS vaccine's failure leaves field reeling. Science 2007d; 318: 28-29.

Cohen J, Lester B. Trials of NIH's AIDS vaccine get a yellow light. Science 2007; 318: 1852.

Cohen J. AIDS research. Treat everyone now? A 'radical' model to stop HIV's spread. Science 2008a; 322: 1453.

Cohen J. AIDS vaccine research. Thumbs down on expensive, hotly debated trial of NIH AIDS vaccine. Science 2008b; 321: 472.

Cohen J. Retrovirus meeting. Back-to-basics push as HIV prevention struggles. Science 2008c; 319: 888.

Cohen J. HIV/AIDS. Treatment and prevention exchange vows at international conference. Science 2008d; 321: 902-903.

Cohen J. Microbicide fails to protect against HIV. Science 2008e; 319: 1026-1027.

Cohen J. Unrevealed analysis weakens claim of AIDS vaccine "success". Science Insider 2009a:

Cohen J. HIV/AIDS research. Surprising AIDS vaccine success praised and pondered. Science 2009b; 326: 26-27.

Cohen J. HIV/AIDS research. Beyond Thailand: making sense of a qualified AIDS vaccine "success". Science 2009c; 326: 652-653.

Cohen MS. Preventing sexual transmission of HIV – New ideas from Sub-Saharan Africa. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 970-972.

Cohen MS, Hellmann N, Levy JA, DeCock K, Lange J. The spread, treatment, and prevention of HIV-1: evolution of a global pandemic. J Clin Invest 2008; 118: 1244-1254.

Colby CJ, Schoen EJ, Ray GT, To T. Cost analysis of newborn circumcision (NC) in a large health maintenance organization (HMO). Pediat Res 2001; 49 (Part 2): 395.

Cold CJ, Taylor JR. The prepuce. BJU Int 1999; 83: 34-44.

Collins S, Upshaw J, Rutchik S, Ohannessian C, Ortenberg J, Albertsen P. Effects of circumcision on male sexual function: Debunking a myth? J Urol 2002; 167: 2111-2112.

Committee on the Fetus and Newborn, American Academy of Pediatrics. Standards and Recommendations for Hospital Care of Newborn Infants. 1971. American Academy of Pediatrics, Evanston, Illinois.

Committee. Foetus and Newborn Committee. Can Paed Soc News Bull 1975; 8 (suppl): 1-2.

Concepción JC, Fernández PG, Aránegui AM, Rodríguez MG, Casacó BM. [The need of circumcision or prepuce dilation. A study with 1200 boys] [Article in Spanish]. Arch Esp Urol 2008; 61: 699-701.

Conway PH, Cnaan A, Zaoutis T, Henry BV, Grundmeier RW. Recurrent urinary tract infections in children: Risk factors and association with prophylactic antimicrobials. J Am Med Assoc 2007; 298: 179-186.

Cook LS, Koutsky LA, Holmes KK. Circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases. Am J Publ Health 1994; 84: 197-201.

Corbett HJ, Humphrey GM. Early complications of circumcisions performed in the community. Br J Gen Pract 2003; 53: 887-888.

Correa P. Is prostate cancer an infectious disease? Int J Epidemiol 2005; 34: 197-198.

Cortés-González JR, Arratia-Maqueo JA, Gómez-Guerra LS. Does circumcision has an effect on female's perception of sexual satisfaction? [Article in Spanish]. Rev Invest Clin 2008; 60: 227-230.

Costello D. AIDS pill as party drug? Los Angeles Times 2005; Dec 19: F1.

Coulthard MG, Lambert HJ, Keir MJ. Occurrence of renal scars in children after their first referral for urinary tract infection. . BMJ 1997; 315: 918-919.

Cox G. De virginibus, Puerisque. The function of the human foreskin considered from an evolutionary perspective. Med Hypoth 1995; 45: 617-621.

Cox G, Morris BJ. History of circumcision. Surgical Guide to Circumcision. Bolnick DA, Koyle MA, Yosha A, eds. 2010: in press.

Cox GC. Re: Non therapeutic treatment on the NHS. ADC Online 6 Nov 2008 responding to Wheeler R, Arch Dis Child 2008; 93: 825-826. Arch Dis Child.

Craig JC, Knight JF, Sureshkumar P, Mantz E, Roy LP. Effect of circumcision on incidence of urinary tract infection in preschool boys. J Pediat 1996; 128: 23-27.

Craig JC, Simpson JM, Williams GJ, Lowe A, Reynolds GJ, McTaggart SJ, Hodson EM, Carapetis JR, Cranswick NE, Smith G, Irwig LM, Caldwell PH, Hamilton S, Roy LP. Antibiotic prophylaxis and recurrent urinary tract infection in children. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 1748-1759.

Crain EF, Gershel JC. Urinary tract infections in febrile infants younger than 8 weeks of age. Pediatrics 1990; 86: 363-367.

Crawford ED, Dawkins CA, Skinner DG, Lieskowsky G. Cancer of the Penis and Management of Genitourinary Cancer. 1988. Philadelphia, WB Saunders.

Cregin R, Rappaport AS, Montagnino G, Sabogal G, Moreau H, Abularrage JJ. Improving pain management for pediatric patients undergoing nonurgent painful procedures. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2008; 65: 723-727.

Culp OS, Patton JF. Reflections. In: United States Army Surgery in World War II. Office of the Surgeon General and Center of Military History, United States Army. pp. 485-490.  1987.


Dada Y, Milord F, Frost E, Manshande JP, Kamuragiye A, Youssouf J, Khelifa M, Pépin J. The Indian Ocean paradox revisited: HIV and sexually transmitted infections in the Comoros. Int J STD AIDS 2007; 18: 596-600.

Dagher R, Selzer ML, Lapides J. Carcinoma of the penis and the anti-circumcision crusade. J Urol 1973; 110: 79-80.

Daling JR, Madeleine MM, Johnson LG, Schwartz SM, Shera KA, Wurscher MA, Carter JJ, Porter PL, Galloway DA, McDougall JK, Krieger JN. Penile cancer: importance of circumcision, human papillomavirus and smoking in in situ and invasive disease. Int J Cancer 2005; 116: 606-616.

Dandona L, Dandona R, Kumar GA, Reddy GB, Ameer MA, Ahmed GM, Ramgopal SP, Akbar M, Sudha T, Lakshmi V. Risk factors associated with HIV in a population-based study in Andhra Pradesh state of India. Int J Epidemiol 2008; 37: 1274-1286.

Dave SS, Johnson AM, Fenton KA, Mercer CH, Erens B, Wellings K. Male circumcision in Britain: findings from a national probability sample survey. Sex Transm Infect 2003; 79: 499-500.

de Bruyn G, Martinson NA, Nkala BD, Tshabangu N, Shilaluka G, Kublin J, Corey L, Gray GE. Uptake of male circumcision in an HIV vaccine efficacy trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2009; 51: 108-110.

de Bruyn G, Martinson NA, Gray GE. Male circumcision for HIV prevention: developments from sub-Saharan Africa. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2010; 8: 23-31.

de Kok IMCM, van Ballegooijen M, Habbem JDF. Cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009; 101: 1083-1092.

De Vincenzi I, Mertens T. Male circumcision a role in HIV prevention? AIDS 1994; 8: 153-60.

de Witte L, Nabatov A, Pion M, Fluitsma D, de Jong MA, de Gruijl T, Piguet V, van Kooyk Y, Geijtenbeek TB. Langerin is a natural barrier to HIV-1 transmission by Langerhans cells. Nat Med 2007; 13: 367-371.

Dennis EJ, Heins HC, Latham E, McIver FA, Pratt-Thomas HR. The carcinogenic effect of human smegma: an experimental study. I. Preliminary report. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1956; 9: 671-680.

Dennis LK, Dawson DV. Meta-analysis of measures of sexual activity and prostate cancer. Epidemiology 2002; 13: 72-79.

Department. Department of Health. Hospital Episodes Statistics 2003-2004. 2005. London, Department of Health.

Desai K, Boily MC, Garnett GP, Mâsse BR, Moses S, Bailey RC. The role of sexually transmitted infections in male circumcision effectiveness against HIV--insights from clinical trial simulation. Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2006; 3: 19 (16 pages).

Dhar GM, Shah GN, Naheed B, Hafiza. Epidemiological trend in the distribution of cancer in Kashmir Valley. J Epidemiol Comm Hlth 1993; 47: 290-292.

Diallo MO, Ackah AN, Lafontaine MF, Doorly R, Roux R, Kanga JM, Heroin P, De Cock KM. HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. AIDS 1992; 6: 581-585.

Dickerman JD. Circumcision in the time of HIV: when is there enough evidence to revise the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy on circumcision? Pediatrics 2007; 119: 1006-1007.

Dickson N, van Roode T, Paul C. Herpes simplex virus type 2 status at age 26 is not related to early circumcision in a birth cohort. Sex Transm Dis 2005; 32: 517-519.

Dickson NP, van Roode T, Herbison P, Paul C. Circumcision and risk of sexually transmitted infections in a birth cohort. J Pediatr 2008; 152: 383-387.

Dickson NP, Ryding J, van Roode T, Paul C, Herbison P, Dillner J, Skegg DC. Male circumcision and serologically determined human papillomavirus infection in a birth cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18: 177-183.

Diebert GA. The separation of the prepuce in the human penis. Anat Rec 1933; 57: 387-399.

Diekema DS. Boldt v. Boldt: A pediatric ethics perspective. J Clin Ethics 2009; 20: 251-257.

Dillner J, Knekt P, Boman J, Lehtinen M, Afgeijersstam V, Sapp M, Schiller J, Maatela J, Aromaa A. Sero-epidemiological association between human-papillomavirus infection and risk of prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 1998; 75: 564-567.

Dillner J, von Krogh G, Horenblas S, Meijer CJ. Etiology of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2000; 205 (Suppl): 189-193.

Dinh MH, McRaven MD, Kelley Z, Penugonda S, Hope TJ. Keratinization of the adult male foreskin and implications for male circumcision. AIDS. 2010: [Epub ahead of print]

Diseker RA, Peterman TA, Kamb ML, Kent C, Zenilman JM, Douglas JM, Rhodes F, Iatesta M. Circumcision and STD in the United States: Cross sectional and cohort analysis. Sex Transm Infect 2000; 76: 474-479.

Diseker RA, Lin LS, Kamb ML, Peterman TA, Kent C, Zenilman J, Lentz A, Douglas JM, Rhodes F, Malotte KC, M. L. Fleeting foreskins: the misclassification of male circumcision status. Sex Transm Dis 2001; 28: 330-335.

Dodge OG, Linsell CA. Carcinoma of the penis in Uganda and Kenya Africans. Cancer 1963; 18: 1255-1263.

Dong B, Silverman RH. Androgen stimulates transcription and replication of XMRV (Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus). J Virol 2010; 84: 1648-1651.

Donoval BA, Landay AL, Moses S, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nyagaya EA, MacLean I, Bailey RC. HIV-1 target cells in foreskins of African men with varying histories of sexually transmitted infections. Am J Clin Pathol 2006; 125: 386-391.

Donovan B, Basset I, Bodsworth NJ. Male circumcision and common sexually transmissible diseases in a developed nation setting. Genitourin Med 1994; 70: 317-320.

Donovan B, Ross MW. Preventing HIV: determinants of sexual behaviour (review). Lancet 2000; 355: 1897-1901.

Downs AM, de Vincenzi I. Probability of heterosexual transmission of HIV: relationship to the number of sexual contacts. J AIDS 1996; 11: 388-395.

Doyle SM, Kahn JG, Hosang N, Carroll PR. The impact of male circumcision on HIV transmission. J Urol 2010; 183: 21-26.

Drain PK, Smith JS, Hughes JP, Halperin DT, Holmes KK. Correlates of national HIV seroprevalence: An ecologic analysis of 122 developing countries. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 35: 407-420.

Drain PK, Halperin DT, Hughes JP, Klausner JD, Bailey RC. Male circumcision, religion, and infectious diseases: an ecologic analysis of 118 developing countries. BMC Infect Dis 2006; 6: 172 (10 pages).

Duncan ND, Dundas SE, Brown B, Pinnock-Ramsaran C, Badal G. Newborn circumcision using the Plastibell device: an audit of practice. West Indian Med J 2004; 53: 23-26.

Dunne EF, Unger ER, Sternberg M, McQuillan G, Swan DC, Patel SS, Markowitz LE. Prevalence of HPV infection among females in the United States. JAMA 2007; 297: 813-819.

Dunsmuir WD, Gordon EM. The history of circumcision. BJU Int 1999; 83 (suppl 1): 1-12.


Eaton L, Kalichman SC. Behavioral aspects of male circumcision for the prevention of HIV infection. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2009; 6: 187-193.

Edwards S. Balanitis and balanoposthitis: A review. Genitourin Med 1996; 72: 155-159.

Elder JS. Re: circumcision--are you with us or against us? J. S. Elder J Urol 2006; 176: 1911. Reply by author. J Urol 2007a; 178: 355.

Elder JS. Surgery illustrated: circumcision. BJU Int 2007b; 99: 155301564.

Elder JS. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 2007c. Saunders.

Elmore JM, Smith EA, Kirsch AJ. Sutureless circumcision using 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond): appraisal after 18-month experience. Urology 2007; 70: 803-806.

English JC, Laws RA, Keough GC, Wilde JL, Foley JP, Elston DM. Dermatoses of the glans penis and prepuce. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997; 37: 1-24.

Erikson SS. A model for teaching newborn circumcision. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 93: 783-784.

Erolu E, Balci S, Ozkan H, Yörükalp O, Göksel A, Sarman G, Dayanikli P. Does circumcision increase neonatal jaundice? Acta Paediatr 2008; 97: 1192-1193.

Erolu E, Bastian OW, Ozkan HC, Yorukalp OE, Goksel AK. Buried penis after newborn circumcision. J Urol 2009; 181: 1841-1843.

Escala JM, Rickwood AMK. Balanitis. Br J Urol 1989; 63: 196-197.

Esposito C, Centonze A, Alicchio F, Savanelli A, Settimi A. Topical steroid application versus circumcision in pediatric patients with phimosis: a prospective randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. World J Urol 2008; 26: 187-190.

Etchells E, Sharpe G, Walsh P. Consent for circumcision. Can Med Assoc J 1997; 156: 18.

Ewings P, Bowie C. A case-control study of cancer of the prostate in Somerset and east Devon. Br J Cancer 1996; 74: 661-666.

Eyer-Silva WA, Freire MA, Gayão ML, Basílio-de-Oliveira CA, Morgado MG. Epidemiologic features of HIV infection in three municipalities of inner Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2007; 49: 303-307.


Fakjian N, Hunter S, Cole GW, Miller J. An argument for circumcision. Prevention of balanitis in the adult. Arch Dermatol 1990; 126: 1046-1047.

Fauci AS. 25 years of HIV/AIDS science: Reaching the poor with research advances. Cell 2007a; 131: 429-432.

Fauci AS. Pathogenesis of HIV disease: opportunities for new prevention interventions. Clin Infect Dis 2007b; 45 (Suppl 4): S206-S212.

Favorito LA, Nardi AC, Ronalsa M, Zequi SC, Sampaio FJ, Glina S. Epidemiologic study on penile cancer in Brazil. Int Braz J Urol 2008; 34: 587-591.

Fergusson DM, Lawton JM, Shannon FT. Neonatal circumcision and penile problems: An 8-year longnitudinal study. Pediatrics 1988; 81: 537-541.

Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ. Circumcision status and risk of sexually transmitted infection in young adult males: an analysis of a longitudinal birth cohort. Pediatrics 2006; 118: 1971-1977.

Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ. Neonatal circumcision: Effects on breastfeeding and outcomes associated with breastfeeding. J Paediatr Child Health 2008; 44: 44-49.

Fernandez L, Galan Y, Jimenez R, Gutierrez A, Guerra M, Pereda C, Alonso C, Riboli E, Agudo A, Gonzalez C. Sexual behaviour, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and the risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study in Cuba. Int J Epidemiol 2005; 34: 193-197.

Fernando JJ, Wanas TM. Squamous carcinoma of the penis and previous recurrent balanitis: a case report. Genitourin Med 1991; 67: 153-155.

Ferrante P, Delbue S, Mancuso R. The manifestation of AIDS in Africa: an epidemiological overview. J Neurovirol 2005; 11 (suppl 1): 50-57.

Fethers KA, Fairley CK, Hocking JS, Gurrin LC, Bradshaw CS. Sexual risk factors and bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47: 1426-1435.

Fette A, Schleaf J, Haberlik A, Seebacher U. Circumcision in paediatric surgery using an ultasound dissection scalpel. Technol Hlth Care 2000; 8: 75-79.

Fetus. Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society. Neonatal circumcision revisited. Can Med Ass J 1996; 154: 769-780.

Fink AJ. A possible explanation for heterosexual male infection with AIDS. N Engl J Med 1986; 314: 1167.

Fink AJ. Newborn circumcision: a long-term strategy for AIDS prevention. J Roy Soc Med 1990; 83: 673.

Fink KS, Carson CC, deVellis RF. Adult circumcision outcomes study: Effect on erectile function, penile sensitivity, sexual activity and satisfaction. J Urol 2002; 167: 2113-2116.

Fischbacher CM. Circumcision of newborn boys. Lancet 1999; 353: 669-670.

Fischetti L, Barry SM, Hope TJ, Shattock RJ. HIV-1 infection of human penile explant tissue and protection by candidate microbicides. AIDS 2009; 23: 319-328.

Flynn P, Havens P, Brady M, Emmanuel P, Read J, Hoyt L, Henry-Reid L, Van Dyke R, Mofenson L. Male circumcision for prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Pediatrics 2007; 119: 821-822.

Foglia G, Sateren WB, Renzullo PO, Bautista CT, Langat L, Wasunna MK, Singer DE, Scott PT, Robb ML, Birx DL. High prevalence of HIV infection among rural tea plantation residents in Kericho, Kenya. Epidemiol Infect 2007; 136: 694-702.

Fonck K, Kidula N, Kirrui P, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Claeys P, Temmerman M. Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases and risk factors among women attending an STD referral clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Dis 2000; 27: 417-423.

Forouhi NG, Merrick D, Goyder E, Ferguson BA, Abbas J, Lachowycz K, Wild SH. Diabetes prevalence in England, 2001--estimates from an epidemiological model. Diabet Med 2006; 23: 189-197.

Fox M. Analysis: AIDS vaccines experts confused, dismayed., 2007.

Franco EL. Male circumcision and AIDS in Africa. Primum non nocere versus the collective good. Epidemiology 2004; 15: 133-134.

Frank R. Comment on “Christakis DA et al. A trade-off analysis of routine newborn circumcision. Pediatrics 2000; 105 (Part 3): 246-249”. Pediatrics 2000; 106 (Suppl): 954.

Freeman EE, Weiss HA, Glynn JR, Cross PL, Whitworth JA, Hayes RJ. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection increases HIV acquisition in men and women: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. AIDS 2006; 20: 73-83.

Freeman EE, White RG, Bakker R, Orroth KK, Weiss HA, Buvé A, Hayes RJ, Glynn JR. Population-level effect of potential HSV2 prophylactic vaccines on HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccine 2008; 27: 940-946.

Frisch M, Friis S, Kjaer SK, Melbye M. Falling incidence of penile cancer in an uncircumcised population (Denmark 1943-90). Br Med J 1995; 311: 1471.

Fussell EN, Kaak BM, Cherry R, Roberts JA. Adherence of bacteria to human foreskin. J Urol 1988; 140: 997-1001.


Gairdner D. The fate of the foreskin: a study of circumcision. Brit Med J 1949; 2: 1433-1437.

Galalakshmi CK, Shanta V. Association between cervical and penile cancers in Madras, India. Acta Oncol 1993; 32: 617-620.

Ganiats TG, Humphrey JBC, Taras HL, Kaplan RM. Routine neonatal circumcision: A cost-utility analysis. Med Decis Making 1991; 11: 282-293.

García-Lerma JG, Otten RA, Qari SH, Jackson E, Cong ME, Masciotra S, Luo W, Kim C, Adams DR, Monsour M, Lipscomb J, Johnson JA, Delinsky D, Schinazi RF, Janssen R, Folks TM, Heneine W. Prevention of rectal SHIV transmission in macaques by daily or intermittent prophylaxis with emtricitabine and tenofovir. PLoS Med 2008; 5: e28.

Gardner AMN. Circumcision and sand. J Roy Soc Med 1991; 84: 387.

Gargollo PC, Kozakewich HP, Bauer SB, Borer JG, Peters CA, Retik AB, Diamond DA. Balanitis xerotica obliterans in boys. J Urol 2005; 174: 1409-1412.

Garland SM, Hernandez-Avila M, Wheeler CM, Perez G, Harper DM, Leodolter S, Tang GW, Ferris DG, Steben M, Bryan J, Taddeo FJ, Railkar R, Esser MT, Sings HL, Nelson M, Boslego J, Sattler C, Barr E, Koutsky LA. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent anogenital diseases. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 1928-1943.

Garry DJ, Swoboda E, Elimian A, Figueroa R. A video study of pain relief during newborn male circumcision. J Perinatol 2006; 26: 106-110.

Gatrad AR, Sheikh A, Jacks H. Religious circumcision and the Human Rights Act. Arch Dis Child 2006; 86: 76-78.

Gazzaz FS, Mosli HA. Lack of detection of human papillomavirus infection by hybridization test in prostatic biopsies. Saudi Med J 2009; 30: 633-637.

Gee WF, Ansell JS. Neonatal circumcision: A ten-year overview, with comparison of the Gomco clamp and the Plastibell device. Pediatrics 1976; 58: 824-827.

Gelbaum I. Circumcision: to educate, not indoctrinate – a mandate for certified nurse-midwives. J Nurse-Midwif 1992; 2 (Suppl): 97S-113S.

General Medical Council. Guidance for doctors who are asked to circumcise male children. 1997. London, GMC.

Gerbase AC, Rowley JT, Heymann DH, Berkley SF, Piot P. Global prevalence and incidence estimates of selected curable STDs. Sex Transm Infect 1998; 74 (Suppl 1): S12-S16.

Gerharz EW, Haarmann C. The first cut is the deepest? Medicolegal aspects of male circumcision. BJU Int 2000; 86: 332-338.

Ghysel C, Vander-Eeckt K, Bogaert GA. Long-term efficiency of skin stretching and a topical corticoid cream application for unretractable foreskin and phimosis in prepubertal boys. Urol Int 2009; 82: 81-88.

Gilbert MT, Rambaut A, Wlasiuk G, Spira TJ, Pitchenik AE, Worobey M. The emergence of HIV/AIDS in the Americas and beyond. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007; 104: 18566-18570.

Ginsburg CM, McCracken GH. Urinary tract infections in young children. Pediatrics 1982; 69: 409-412.

Giuliano AR, Lazcano E, Villa LL, Flores R, Salmeron J, Lee JH, Papenfuss M, Abrahamsen M, Baggio ML, Silva R, Quiterio M. Circumcision and sexual behavior: factors independently associated with human papillomavirus detection among men in the HIM study. Int J Cancer 2009; 124: 1251-1257.

Glennon J, Ryan PI, Keane CT, Rees JPR. Circumcision and periurethral carriage of Proteus mirabilis in boys. Arch Dis Child 1988; 63: 556-557.

Godbole S, Mehendale S. HIV/AIDS epidemic in India: risk factors, risk behaviour & strategies for prevention & control. Indian J Med Res 2005; 121: 356-368.

Golden MR, Wasserheit JN. Prevention of viral sexually transmitted infections--foreskin at the forefront. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 1349-1351.

Gollaher DL. From ritual to science: the medical transformation of circumcision in America. J Soc Hist 1994; 28: 5-36.

Gontero P, Galzerano M, Bartoletti R, Magnani C, Tizzani A, Frea B, Mondaini N. New insights into the pathogenesis of penile shortening after radical prostatectomy and the role of postoperative sexual function. J Urol 2007; 178: 602-607.

Goodman MT, Hernandez BY, Shvetsov Y. Demographic and pathologic differences in the incidence of invasive penile cancer in the United States, 1995-2003. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16: 1833-1839.

Gopal R. Religion, culture and the male cut in Asia. Exchange on HIV/AIDS, sexuality and gender. 2009; 3 ( 14-15.

Gostin LO, Hankins CA. Male circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy in sub-Saharan Africa. Sociolegal barriers. JAMA 2009; 300: 2539-2541.

Gottlieb SL, Douglas JM, Jr, Foster M, Schmid DS, Newman DR, Baron AE, Bolan G, Iatesta M, Malotte CK, Zenilman J, Fishbein M, Peterman TA, Kamb ML. Incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in 5 sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and the effect of HIV/STD risk-reduction counseling. J Infect Dis 2004; 190: 1059-1067.

Goubet N, Rattaz C, Pierrat V, Bullinger A, Lequien P. Olfactory experience mediates response to pain in preterm newborns. Dev Psychobiol 2003; 42: 171-180.

Goubet N, Strasbaugh K, Chesney J. Familiarity breeds content? Soothing effect of a familiar odor on full-term newborns. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2007; 28: 189-194.

Goulding FJ. Penile block for postoperative pain relief in penile surgery. J Urol 1981; 126: 337.

Government of the District of Columbia Department of Health. District of Columbia HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Update 2008.

Government A. Australian Government. Department of Health and Ageing. MBS Online. 2009; Medicare. MBS Online. Medical Benefits Scheme.

Government A. Australian Government. Department of Health and Ageing. MBS Online. 2009(issue).

Govier T. A Practical Study of Argument. 1997. Belmont, California, Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Gray DT. Neonatal circumcision: cost-effective preventive measure or "the unkindest cut of all"? Med Decis Making 2004; 24: 688-692.

Gray R, Azire J, Serwadda D, Kiwanuka N, Kigozi G, Kiddugavu M, Nalugoda F, Li X, Wawer M. Male circumcision and the risk of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Rakai, Uganda. AIDS 2004; 18: 2428-2430.

Gray RH, Kiwanuka N, Quinn T, Sewankambo NK, Serwadda D, Mangen FW, Lutalo T, Nalugoda F, Kelly  R, Meehan M, Chen MZ, Li C, Wawer MJ. Male circumcision and HIV aquisition and transmission: Cohort studies in Raiki, Uganda. AIDS 2000a; 14: 42371-42381.

Gray RH, Quinn TC, Serwadda D, Sewankambo NK, Wabwire-Mangen F, Wawer MJ. The ethics of research in developing countries. N Engl J Med 2000b; 343: 361-362.

Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Makumbi F, Watya S, Nalugoda F, Kiwanuka N, Moulton LH, Chaudhary MA, Chen MZ, Sewankambo NK, Wabwire-Mangen F, Bacon MC, Williams CF, Opendi P, Reynolds SJ, Laeyendecker O, Quinn TC, Wawer MJ. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial. Lancet 2007a; 369: 657-666.

Gray RH, Li X, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Nalugoda F, Watya S, Reynolds SJ, Wawer M. The impact of male circumcision on HIV incidence and cost per infection prevented: a stochastic simulation model from Rakai, Uganda. AIDS 2007b; 21: 845-850.

Gray RH, Wawer MJ, Kigozi G, Serwadda D. Commentary: Disease modelling to inform policy on male circumcision for HIV prevention. Int J Epidemiol 2008; 37: 1253-1254.

Gray RH. Infectious disease: Male circumcision for preventing HPV infection. Nat Rev Urol 2009a; 6: 298-299.

Gray RH. Methodologies for evaluating HIV prevention intervention (populations and epidemiologic settings). Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009b; 4: 274-278.

Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Makumbi F, Nalugoda F, Watya S, Moulton L, Chen MZ, Sewankambo NK, Kiwanuka N, Sempijja V, Lutalo T, Kagayii J, Wabwire-Mangen F, Ridzon R, Bacon M, Wawer MJ. The effects of male circumcision on female partners' genital tract symptoms and vaginal infections in a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009a; 200: e1-e7.

Gray RH, Serwadda D, Tobian AAR, Chen MZ, Makumbi F, Suntoke T, Kigozi G, Nalugoda F, Iga B, Quinn TC, Moulton LH, Laeyendecker O, Reynolds SJ, Kong X, Wawer MJ. Effects of genital ulcer disease and herpes simplex virus type 2 on the efficacy of male circumcision for HIV prevention: Analyses from the Rakai trials. PLoS Med 2009b; 6: e1000187(8pages).

Gray RH, Wawer MJ, Serwadda D, Kigozi G. The role of male circumcision in the prevention of human papillomavirus and HIV infection. J Infect Dis 2009c; 199: 1-3.

Green EC. AIDS and STDs in Africa: Bridging the Gap Between Traditional Healers and Modern Medicine. 1994. Boulder, Colorado, USA, and Oxford, UK, Westfield Press and University of Natal Press.

Gregg V. Aggressive treatment for early prostate cancer cost-effective. OncoLink - Cancer News 2000;

Griebling TL. Urologic Diseases in America project: trends in resource use for urinary tract infections in men. J Urol 2005; 173: 1288-1294.

Griebling TL. Urinary tract infection in men. Urologic Diseases in America. Litwin MS, Saigal CS. Washington, DC, US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; US Government Printing Office. 2007, 623-645.

Griffin AS, Kroovand RL. Frenular chordee: implications and treatment. Urology 1990; 35: 133-134.

Griffith D, Bellows B, Potts M. Cut to the chase: quickly achieving high coverage male circumcision. J Epidemiol Community Health 2007; 61: 612.

Griffiths D, Frank JD. Inappropriate circumcision referrals by GPs. J R Soc Med 1992; 85: 324-325.

Griffiths DM, Atwell JD, Freeman NV. A prospective survey of the indications and morbidity of circumcision in children. Eur Urol 1985; 11: 184-187.

Gross G, Pfister H. Role of human papillomavirus in penile cancer, penile intraepithelial squamous cell neoplasias and in genital warts. Med Microbiol Immunol 2004; 193: 35-44.

Grulich AE, Hendry O, Clark E, Kippax S, Kaldor JM. Circumcision and male-to-male sexual transmission of HIV. AIDS 2001; 15: 1188-1189.

Gunsar C, Kurutepe S, Alparslan O, Yulmaz O, Daglar Z, Sencan A, Genc A, Taneli C, Mir E. The effect of circumcision status on periurethral and glanular bacterial flora. Urol Int 2004; 72: 212-215.

Gyftopoulos K. Male dyspareunia due to short frenulum: the suture-free, "pull and burn" method. J Sex Med 2009; 6: 2611-2614.


Hale P. Mission now possible for AIDS fund. Nature 2001; 412: 271-272.

Hall HI, An Q, Hutchinson AB, Sansom S. Estimating the lifetime risk of a diagnosis of the HIV infection in 33 states, 2004-2005. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008a; 49: 294-297.

Hall HI, Song R, Rhodes P, Prejean J, An Q, Lee LM, Karon J, Brookmeyer R, Kaplan EH, McKenna MT, Janssen RS. Estimation of HIV incidence in the United States. JAMA 2008b; 300: 520-529.

Halperin D, Bailey R. Male circumcision and HIV infection: 10 years and counting. Lancet 1999; 354: 1813-5.

Halperin DT. Dry sex and HIV infection in the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Sex Transm Inf 1999; 75: 445-446.

Halperin DT, Steiner MJ, Cassell MM, Green EC, Hearst N, Kirby D, Gayle HD, Cates W. The time has come for common ground on preventing sexual transmission of HIV. Lancet 2004; 364: 1913-1915.

Halperin DT, Fritz K, McFarland W, Woelk G. Acceptability of adult male circumcision for sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention in Zimbabwe. Sex Transm Dis 2005; 32: 238-239.

Hammond GW, Slutchuk M, Scatliff J, Sherman E, Wilt JC, Ronald AR. Epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic features of an urban outbreak of chancroid in North America. Rev Infect Dis 1980; 2: 867-879.

Hammond T. A preliminary poll of men circumcised in infancy or childhood. BJU Int 1999; 83 (suppl 1): 85-92.

Hand EA. Circumcision and venereal disease. Arch Dermatol Syphilol 1949; 60: 341-346.

Haneke E. Skin diseases and tumors of the penis. Urol Int 1982; 37: 172-182.

Hankins C, Hargrove J, Williams B, Raddad LA, Auvert B, Bollinger L, Dorrington R, Ghani A, Gray R, Hallett T, Kahn JG, Lohse N, Nagelkerke N, Porco T, Schmid G, Stover J, Weiss H, Welte A, White P, White R. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in high HIV prevalence settings: what can mathematical modelling contribute to informed decision making? PLoS Med 2009; 6: e1000109.

Hardwick-Smith S, Mastrobattista JM, Wallace PA. Ring block for neonatal circumcision. Obstet Gynecol 1998; 91: 930-934.

Harel L, Straussbergr R, Jackson S, Amir J, Tiqwa P. Influence of circumcision technique on frequency of urinary tract infections in neonates. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002; 21: 879-880.

Hargreaves S. 60% reduction in HIV risk with male circumcision, says WHO. Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7: 313.

Hargrove J. Migration, mines and mores: the HIV epidemic in southern Africa. South African J Sci 2008; 104: 53-61.

Hart G. Venereal disease in a war environment: incidence and management. Med J Aust 1975; 1: 808-810.

Hart G. Venereologica: facts and figures from an STD clinic. South Australian Health Commission, Adelaide 1992: 33.

Hart G. Factors associated with genital chlamydial and gonoccocal infection in males. Genitourin Med 1993; 69: 393-396.

Hartling L, Shaik M, Tjosvold L, Leicht R, Liang Y, Kumar M. Music for medical indications in the neonatal period: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2009; 94: F349-F354.

Harturian NS, Smart CN, Thompson MS. The incidence and economic costs of cancer, motor vehicle injuries, coronary heart disease and stroke: a comparative analysis. Am J Public Health 1980; 70: 1249-1260.

Hayashi Y, Kojima Y, Mizuno K, Nakane A, Kamisawa H, Maruyama T, Kohri K. A Japanese view on circumcision: Nonoperative management of normal and abnormal prepuce. Urology 2010: [Epub ahead of print Dec 4].

Hayes RB, Pottern LM, Strickler H, Rabkin C, Pope V, Swanson GM, Greenberg RS, Schoenberg JB, Liff J, Schwartz AG, Hoover RN, Fraumeni JF, Jr. Sexual behaviour, STDs and risks for prostate cancer. Br J Cancer 2000; 82: 718-725.

Hayes RJ, Schulz KF, Plummer FA. The cofactor effect of genital ulcers on the per-exposure risk of HIV transmission. J Trop Med Hyg 1995; 98: 1-8.

Heins HC, Jr., Dennis EJ. The possible role of smegma in carcinoma of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1958; 76: 726-733.

Heng B, Glenn WK, Ye Y, Tran B, Delprado W, Lutze-Mann L, Whitaker NJ, Lawson JS. Human papilloma virus is associated with breast cancer. Br J Cancer 2009; 101: 1345-1350.

Hennig EM, Suo Z, Thoresen S, Holm R, Kvinnsland S, Nesland JM. Human papillomavirus 16 in breast cancer of women treated for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III). Breast Cancer Res Treat 1999; 53: 121-135.

Henning J, S. W. Legal aspects of men's genitourinary health. Int J Impot Res 2009; 21: 165-170.

Hernandez BY, Barnholtz-Sloan J, German RR, Giuliano A, Goodman MT, King JB, Negoita S, Villalon-Gomez JM. Burden of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in the United States, 1998-2003. Cancer 2008a; 113 (Suppl): 2883-91.

Hernandez BY, Wilkens LR, Zhu X, McDuffie K, Thompson P, Shvetsov YB, Ning L, Goodman MT. Circumcision and human papillomavirus infection in men: a site-specific comparison. J Infect Dis 2008b; 197: 787-794.

Herschel M, Khoshnood B, Ellman C, Maydew N, Mittendorf R. Neonatal circumcision. Randomized trial of a sucrose pacifier for pain control. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998; 152: 279-284.

Herzog LW, Alvarez SR. The frequency of foreskin problems in uncircumcised children. Am J Dis Child 1986; 140: 254-256.

Herzog LW. Urinary tract infections and circumcision: a case-control study. Am J Dis Child 1989; 143: 348-350.

Heyns CF, Groeneveld AE, Sigarroa NB. Urologic complications of HIV and AIDS. Nat Clin Pract Urol 2009; 6: 32-43.

Hill BA. The environment and disease: Association or causation? Proc Royal Soc Med 1965; 58: 295-300.

Hinchley G. Is infant male circumcision an abuse of the rights of the child? (Head to Head article) Brit Med J 2007; 335: 1180.

Hira SK, Nkwane BM, Kamanga J, Wadhawan D, Kavindele D, Macuacua R, Mpoko G, Malek M, Cruess DF, Perine PL. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus in families in Lusaka, Zambia. J AIDS 1990; 3: 83-86.

Hiraoka M, Tsukahara H, Ohshima Y, Mayumi M. Meatus tightly covered by the prepuce is associated with urinary infection. Pediatr Int 2002; 44: 658-662.

HIV H. HIV Vaccine Trials Network. Vaccination and Enrollment Are Discontinued in Phase II Trials of Merck's Investigational HIV Vaccine Candidate. Interim Analysis of STEP Study Shows Vaccine was not Effective 2007.

Hladik F, Sakchalathorn P, Ballweber L, Lentz G, Fialkow M, Eschenbach D, McElrath MJ. Initial events in establishing vaginal entry and infection by human immunodeficiency virus type-1. Immunity 2007; 26: 257-270.

Hoberman A, Wald ER, Hickey RW, Baskin M, Charron M, Majd M, Kearney DH, Reynolds EA, Ruley J, Janosky JE. Oral versus initial intravenous therapy for urinary tract infections in young febrile children. Pediatrics 1999; 104 (Part 1): 79-86.

Hohn O, Krause H, Barbarotto P, Niederstadt L, Beimforde N, Denner J, Miller K, Kurth R, Bannert N. Lack of evidence for xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus(XMRV) in German prostate cancer patients. Retrovirology 2009; 6: 92.

Holland AJ. Should we excise the foreskin? ANZ J Surg 2009; 79: 89.

Holliday MA, Pinckert TL, Kiernan SC, Kunos I, Angelus P, Keszler M. Dorsal penile nerve block vs topical placebo for circumcision in low-birth-weight neonates. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153: 476-480.

Holman JR, Lewis EL, Ringler RL. Neonatal circumcision techniques. Am Fam Physician 1995; 52: 511-520.

Holmes EC. When HIV spread afar. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007; 104: 18351-18352.

Holtgrave DR, Hall HI, Rohodes PH, Wolitski RJ. Updated annual HIV transmission rates in the United States, 1977-2006. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2009; 50: 236-238.

Honey K. Winning or losing: where are we in the fight against HIV and AIDS? J Clin Invest 2007; 117: 2348.

Hook EW, 3rd. 2008 Thomas Parran Award Lecture: Translational research, STD control, and health disparities: a challenge and an opportunity. Sex Transm Dis 2008; 35: 969-972.

Hooper RR, Reynolds GH, Jones OG, Zaidi A, Wiesner PJ, Latimer KP, Lester A, Campbell AF, Harrison WO, Karney WW, Holmes KK. Cohort study of venereal disease. I: the risk of gonorrhea transmission from infected women to men. Am J Epidemiol 1978; 108: 136-144.

Hosseini SR, Khazaeli MH, Atharikia D. Role of postcircumcision mucosal cuff length in lifelong premature ejaculation: a pilot study. J Sex Med 2008; 5: 206-209.

Howard C, Howard F, Garfunkel L, de B, Weitzman M. Neonatal circumcision and pain relief: Current training practices. Pediatrics 1998; 101: 423-8.

Howard CR, Howard FM, Fortune K, Generalli P, Zolnoun D, ten Hoopen C, de Blieck E. A randomized, controlled trial of a eutectic mixture of local anesthetic cream (lidocaine and prilocaine) versus penile nerve block for pain relief during circircumcision. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 181: 1506-1511.

Hsiao AL, Chen L, Baker MD. Incidence and predictors of serious bacterial infections among 57- to 180-day-old infants. Pediatrics 2006; 117: 1695-1701.

Hsieh MH, Tan AG, Meng MV. Medical malpractice in American urology: 22-year national review of the impact of caps and implications for contemporary practice. J Urol 2008; 179: 1944-1949.

Hsieh TF, Chang CH, Chang SS. Foreskin development before adolescence in 2149 schoolboys. Int J Urol 2006; 13: 9680970.

Hu D, Goldie S. The economic burden of noncervical human papillomavirus disease in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 198: 500.e1-7.

Hunter DJ. AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: the epidemiology of heterosexual transmission and the prospects of prevention (Review). Epidemiology 1993; 4: 63-72.

Huntley JS, Bourne MC, Munro FD, Wilson-Storey D. Troubles with the foreskin: one hundred consecutive referrals to paediatric surgeons. J R Soc Med 2003; 96: 449-451.

Hussain LA, Lehner T. Comparative investigation of Langerhans cells and potential receptors for HIV in oral, genitourinary and rectal epithelia. Immunology 1995; 85: 475-484.

Hutchinson J. On the influence of circumcision in preventing syphilis. Medical Times and Gazette 1855; II: 542-543.

Hutchinson J. On circumcision as preventative of masturbation. Arch Surg 1891; 2: 267-268.


Isacsohn M, Dolberg L, Sabag SG, Mitrani-Rosenbaum S, Nubani N, Diamant YZ, Goldsmidt R. The inter-relationship of herpes virus, papilloma 16/18 virus infection and Pap smear pathology in Israeli women. Israel J Med Sci 1994; 30: 383-387.

Ishikawa E, Kawakita M. Preputial development in Japanese boys. Hinyokika Kiyo 2004; 50: 305-308.

Iskit S, Ilkit M, Turç-Biçer A, Demirhindi H, Türker M. Effect of circumcision on genital colonization of Malassezia spp. in a pediatric population. Med Mycol 2006; 44: 113-117.

Circumcision Info

What is circumcision?
Who in the world gets circumised?
The circumcision debate.
Circumcision history and recent trends.
Position statements by national pediatric bodies.
Why the foreskin increases infection risk.
Circumcision - 'shapshot' of health benefits + reviews.
Different specialists see different things.
Circumcision - benefits outweigh the risks.
Pain and memory.
Penile hygiene.
What motivates parents to baby boy circumcision.
Rates of circumcision.
Physical problems.
Inflammatory dermatoses.
Urinary tract infections.
Sexually transmitted infections.
Cancer of the penis.
Prostate cancer.
Cervical cancer in female partners of uncircumcised men.
Breast cancer in female partners of uncircumcised men.
Herpes simplex type 2 virus in women.
Chlamydia in women.
Trichomonas in women.
Bacterial vaginosis in women.
HIV: the AIDS virus.
Circumcision Socio-sexual aspects.
Circumcision - sensitivity, sensation & sexual function.
Circumcision - societal class distinction.
Circumcision prevents infibulation.
Circumcision procedure.
Circumcision & Anesthesia.
Cost of the Circumcision procedure.
Cost benefit of Circumcision.
Circumcision - how do I find someone to do it?.
Circumcision - whose responsibility?
Risks in infants.
Circumcision - risks in adults & older boys.
Circumcision - breastfeeding outcomes and cognitive ability.
Circumcision, does it affect penis length?
Circumcision - why are human males born with a foreskin?
Circumcision - best not to delay til later.
Circumcision - what caused many cultures to ritually remove the foreskin?
In Alphabetical Order
(A – I)(J – R)(S – Z)
Brochures, circumcision information guide.
Anti Circumcision
Anti-circumcision lobby groups.
Links & Resources
Circumcision websites & online discussion groups.
BOOK: "In Favour of Circumcision".
About the Author - Professor Emeritus Brian J. Morris.
Adult circumcision stories - testimonials and more.
Donations Welcome
• Donations